The global fishing industry is a multi-billion dollar industry, with a recent report released by Stratistics MRC valuing it at $239.8 billion in 2015 — and projecting it to reach $320 billion by 2022. Southeast Asia is one of the largest contributors to this market, accounting for more than 50% of the world catch and with the largest concentration of fishing vessels in the world– over 3 million. More than just an economic powerhouse and one of the globe’s biggest sources of protein, Southeast Asia’s fisheries employ 93% of all fishery and aquaculture employees worldwide, and 10% of the world’s total working population.
The industry, while growing and a profitable employer of hundreds of millions, is also a large developmental concern. Its exponential growth and increased demands that it enjoys negatively impact the health of valuable ecosystems, marine biodiversity, and threaten already dwindling fish stocks. In addition to the environmental impacts, the region is rife with illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing – an issue that is gaining traction in development both because of its environmental impacts, but also because of its serious human welfare implications.
“Data has become increasingly important to the way we think and talk about conflict and our humanitarian responses to it” (Róisín Read, Bertrand Taithe and Roger Mac Ginty). In a world where technology is often looked to to address human problems, how do these issues relate to data and development? A number of non-governmental, governmental, private sector, and industry players are increasingly looking to data to gather information on an industry that, despite its wealth, is incredibly challenged by tracking and sourcing its products, far behind other food sector’s traceability capabilities.
With new U.S. regulations that will require a set of standard data to be submitted with every seafood import to enhance transparency (released in December 2016 and going into effect in January 2018) also serving as a catalyst, fisherfolk and industry must quickly get aboard supply chain data collection efforts, and figure out how to implement these systems in their operations. Data collection is challenged by limited connectivity at sea, hesitancy to invest, unwillingness to share proprietary data (such as location of catch), and complex supply chains.
So, how can development organizations address this challenge to increase sustainability, protect finite marine resources, and address serious human welfare concerns that include limited labor rights, forced labor, and slavery? While more data can equal more intelligent decision making, transparency, and the development of effective policy and regulation, it can also leave beneficiaries behind – often the most critical beneficiaries, those that have sole-source incomes, limited access to technology, and depend on the sector for their livelihood.
Not only do large scale commercial operations need to be addressed, but small-scale fishers – those that often catch only a few kilograms of fish per day and is their sole source of income. How can large scale operators and artisanal fishers, living in small coastal fishing villages comply with regulations and uniformly collect data in a way that doesn’t push small, independent fishers out of the supply chain? With the proliferation of big data, how can development take care to further development goals with technology, and not further segment society into groups that are more or less likely to adopt data technology? “…The way information technology [has] operated in the sector [is] equivalent to ‘buying a state of the art car, driving it into the desert and leaving it there’. More and more money is invested in developing these technologies but their use is often limited, driven not by a clear sense of what is needed to improve response, but by what the advances in technology enable.”
Stratistics MRC. Commercial Fishing Industry – Global Market Outlook (2016-2022). January 2017. http://www.satprnews.com/2017/03/03/commercial-fishing-industry-market-size-share-analysis-report-and-forecast-to-2022/
Global Implications of Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing. National Intelligence Council. 19 September 2016. http://www.iuufishing.noaa.gov/RecommendationsandActions/RECOMMENDATION1415/FinalRuleTraceability.aspx
Third World Quarterly, 2016 Data hubris? Humanitarian information systems and the mirage of technology Róisín Read, Bertrand Taithe and Roger Mac Ginty Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute, University of Manchester, UK. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2015.1136208