Tag Archives: socialmedia

They’re Talking. Are We Listening?

Development agencies and programs around the world are staffed with skilled Monitoring & Evaluation professionals, responsible for tracking a program’s progress against its goals through quantifiable results – think back to the days of creating SMART (specific, measurable, actionable, time-based) goals for your professional evaluations or science class hypotheses. The program I work on, funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, measures our progress against twelve indicators, which include standard measurements such as number of people trained, number of transactions recorded to track tuna catch, and millions of dollars leveraged from the private sector. While all worthwhile measurements that seek to quantify the program’s impact, does this really capture the full program’s full accomplishments (or failures) in way that reflect beneficiaries personal gains and experiences?

With developments in technology, data collection, and increased use of social media in everyday life, the amount of data is ever increasing, along with professions to analyze and assess this data. How can development tap into this potential?

Development agencies and non-profits are increasingly pushing out information using social media. But, should we be spending more time listening?

In response to America’s current political landscape and reduced funding of government agencies, a recent article in the Boston Business Journal poses how urban social listening can help to determine the impact of aid and social programs. In the study, researchers, “…began by listening to the ‘digital crumbs’ generated by collective searches and postings to social media like Twitter.” Urban social listening offers a, “systematic, rigorous collection and analysis of [social media] ‘crumbs…’ offering useful insights into understanding the government’s role in addressing urban problems” (Hollander and Renski, The Boston Business Journal).

It has been shown that there is an evidenced correlation between positive sentiment and health indicators. In a 2015 study, Twitter sentiment was shown to be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than any conventional indicator like smoking or socioeconomics. Hollander, author of the Journal article, applies urban listening techniques to U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Community Development Block Grants (CDBG). While he wasn’t able to find significant improved sentiment in cities with CDBG funding, it seems that the community scale being analyzed is too large to yield highly correlated results.

In development, non-profits and government agencies alike are increasingly using social media to communicate with stakeholders and beneficiaries, but listening is a newer trend. Payal Arora and Nimmi Rangaswamy echo this in Digital Leisure for Development: Reframing New Media Practice in the Global South. “…Research is driven by development agendas with a strong historical bias towards towards the socio-economic focus. Data that does not directly address project-based outcomes is side-lined.”

Tracking sentiment through social media is not a new concept, used for years in consumer confidence and political opinion. While certainly more people are tweeting on popular political opinion topics, how can we the development world harness and tailor these listening practices to hear our beneficiaries, and through listening show that their voice counts.

References
Arora, Payal and Nimmi Rangaswamy. Digital Leisure for Development: Reframing New Media Practice in the Global South. Sage Journals. October 10, 2013.

Hollander, Justin. Viewpoint: As Ben Carson Hearings Get Under Way, Can Social Media Help Identify Hud Impact? The Boston Business Journal, 2 March 2017. http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/news/2017/03/02/viewpoint-as-ben-carson-hearings-get-under-way-can.html

Eichstaedt, Johannes, et al. Psychological Language on Twitter Predicts County-Level Heart Disease Mortality. Sage Journals. Volume: 26 issue. Pages 159-169. Published January 20, 2015. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0956797614557867

#RESIST – How a hashtag united people over social media and beyond

 

When President Donald J. Trump was elected President of the United States, it was met with a bundle of mixed feelings. Some thought they finally had a representative in the white house that would look out for them, whilst others wept, rallied, and organized themselves. Out of the latter a new hashtag was born on social media: Resist.

#Resist has been used by several different individuals, groups, and organizations. Its spread and representation goes from social media into real life. Whilst empirical studies are surprisingly few, we do know that with Facebook’s over 1.5 billion users it has altered the social fabric as we know it, and on a societal level social media has created unprecedented opportunities for information flow, affective expression, social influence, and even democratic revolution (Lewis, Gray, and Meierhenrich 2014:1).

The meaning behind the hashtag ‘Resist’ may vary from person to person, and the way people use it come in variations. Founders and executive directors of groups around the United States explain what #Resist really mean to them, listing some of the same core values, yet with personal take as well. According to them ‘Resist’ means to stand up, to fight, to not give in, to not become complacent or accept, to be be informed, to welcome diversity and differences, to join the masses, to protect their country’s gains and advances, and to move forward not backward. The resistance has taken centre stage as well. Recently, celebrities have made political anti-Trump statements through speeches, songs, and performances during both the Grammys as well as the Oscars. Katy Perry was seen wearing an armband with the word Resist on it during her performance at the Grammys.

The website meetup.com have created a space as well as encouraged individuals to join or start meetup groups for those who care about what’s happening to democracy, human rights, social justice, equality, sustainability, and other issues in their area. These groups can primarily be found all around the United States, but also in Australia, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.

On January 25, 2017, seven activists for Greenpeace, the environmental advocacy organization, climbed a crane near the White House in Washington DC and unfolded a banner with the word “Resist” on it. In Donald J. Trump’s first week in office he had taken steps to freeze grants through the Environmental Protection Agency and has resurrected the Keystone and Dakota Pipeline projects, something former President Barack Obama had put a stop to after months of protests by environmental activists. Travis Nichols, a spokesman for Greenpeace, said the protesters were there “to resist the environmental, economic and racial injustice that Trump and his administration have already laid out and put into practice.”

In my searches online it has been difficult to find any tallies of how often #resist has been used and any researches as to see the impact it has had on the wider community. Guo and Saxton writes that out of 53 advocacy groups in the United States most used social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action. The authors continue writing that scholars have yet to delve deeper into the ‘statuses’ and ‘updates’ on social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter which brings us to the fact that in reality we know little about advocacy organizations’ social media presence (Guo and Saxton 2014:60f).

On an everyday basis, Mr. Boyan shares a recent experience: “I was on the phone arranging a [carpool] to violin practice and I said: ‘All right, I’ll be there in 20 minutes. Bye.’ And the mom said, ‘Resist,’” he continues, “When people say goodbye to each other, they are saying, ‘Resist.’” It appears that the hashtag resist is much more than just a ‘thing’ on the internet, it has become a representation of something much bigger that resonates with many.

References – imbedded in the text and:

Guo, C., Saxton, G.D. 2014- Tweeting Social Change- How Social Media Are Changing Nonprofit Advocacy, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly.

Lewis, K., Gray, K., & Meierhenrich, J. 2014- The Structure of Online Activism, Sociological Science.

The Women’s March – Local Going Global

Women’s March in Washington DC, January 21, 2017. © Hanna Rhodin

The body of people forced itself forward, towards the White House. The air was crisp and the atmosphere was vibrant, optimistic, to the point where it almost felt like you could touch it. Pink hats were worn proudly and signs were raised up high. Saying “I’m with her” surrounded by arrows, a picture of a cat saying “Grabs back”, the creativity and the messages were many, touching upon gender issues, corruption, disbelief in the new president, immigration, refugees, and of hope for a brighter future. A woman was holding a big blue flag with yellow stars on it. When asked what the flag represented she said “Alaska”. All around people struck conversations with strangers from all over the United States, all gathered in the nation’s capital, Washington DC, on January 21, 2017 to have their voice heard.

I first heard about the Women’s March on Facebook. I clicked that I was “Interested” in the event. Weeks later my immigrant friends and I walked along the streets in Washington DC toward the march. Social Media was how we all found out about the event, and soon thereafter the march got traction in the mainstream media. It seems that no longer is social media something we can discredit from affecting people’s actions and opinions, not to mention politically. Aday, Farrel and Lynch et al. writes “New media, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, have played a major role in episodes of contentious political action. They are often described as important tools for activists seeking to replace authoritarian regimes and to promote freedom and democracy, and they have been lauded for their democratizing potential.” (Aday, Farrel, & Lynch et al. 2010:3). Over 200 000 people clicked “Going” to The Women’s March in DC, over 200 000 clicked that they were interested in the event, and in reality, estimates show 470,000 to 680,000 participants.

Jeremy Pressman, a professor of political science at the University of Connecticut, and Erica Chenoweth, a professor at the University of Denver and an expert on nonviolent protest, collaborated and created a spreadsheet open to the public. They gathered data from coverage and news of marches around the world. Whilst their best guess is a total of 4,157,898, their low estimate versus high estimate ranges from 3,267,134 to 5,246,670. To eventually settle the question, artificial intelligence may come to the rescue providing advanced technology to crowd counting, as organizers often have a reason to exaggerate in order to convey an even more impressive turnout.

Can social media take all the credit for creating the turnout for the Women’s March? Not necessarily. In 1995, before internet had made it is breakthrough in daily life the Million Man March in Washington DC, attracted an estimated 400,000 to 600,000 participants. It is possible that the Women’s March on its own would still gather a large support with our without new media, but that it is new media alone, we cannot take for granted as more factors likely would play a part. However, social media can be a very powerful and important tool, it can also lower the communicational transaction cost (Aday, Farrell & Lynch, 2010:10f).

Regardless of the actual turnout, the Women’s March in Washington DC, in many other cities and towns around the United States, and all over the world, was a powerful statement in unity and in number, and a testament to new media being used to mobilize, organize, and democratize.

References

Aday, S., Farrell, H., Lynch, M. et al. 2010: Blogs and Bullets: New Media in Contentious Politics, Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.

Captain, Sean. January 20, 2017. ‘The Science and Politics of Counting The Inauguration and Women’s March’. Fast Company. Retrieved February 25, 2017. https://www.fastcompany.com/3067376/fast-cities/the-science-and-politics-of-counting-the-crowds-at-the-inauguration-and-womens-m

Janofsky, Michael. October 21, 1995. ‘Federal Parks Chief Calls ‘Million Man’ Count Low’. The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2017. http://www.nytimes.com/1995/10/21/us/federal-parks-chief-calls-million-man-count-low.html

Pressman, Jeremy, and Chenoweth, Erica. 2017. Crowd Estimates, 1.21.2017. Retrieved February 25, 2017. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1xa0iLqYKz8x9Yc_rfhtmSOJQ2EGgeUVjvV4A8LsIaxY/htmlview?sle=true#gid=0  

The Women’s March. Facebook Page. Retrieved February 25, 2017. https://www.facebook.com/events/2169332969958991/?active_tab=discussion