ComDev Degree Projects Collection

May 25, 2012

MA Communication for Development
Degree Project Collection 2001 – 2016

This is a list of Degree Projects (15 credit thesis works) that have completed on the MA Communication for Development programme since 2001.
Many recent projects are publicly available through Malmö University’s Electronic Publishing (MUEP) platform.


Feminist perspectives on development-induced displacement and resettlement in Sri Lanka – A case study of resettled self-employed women in Colombo
By Valentina Marassi

Diffusion of Social Innovations Exploring the potential of online platforms that enable the diffusion of social innovations
By Diana Elena Gaftoneanu

Tweeting for climate action – An analysis of the UN hashtag #climate2014
By Nina Eneroth

Visual representations of (Syrian) refugees in European newspapers
By Richard Willem van Schaik

Autoethnography: Developing a Communication for Development Strategy to enhance sustainability of a sea desalination project in Gaza, occupied Palestinian territory
By Sajy Elmughanni

Reducing the ‘Neglect’ in Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Review of the Debate surrounding the Effectiveness of Mass Deworming: A Case Study of Kenya
By Kim Brigitzer

The Artist: A Reluctant Activist – Art as an invitation for debate in the context of social change and new media
By Maria Dutarte

Celebrities Use of Visual Representations of Distant Others in the Context of Common-sense Humanitarianism
By Galena Velichkova

Celebrities in Haiti: Branding or Aiding
By Erika Konovalova

ICTs and Violence Against Women in Cambodia: Voices from the Activists
By Carmen Rodriguez

Can the Subaltern Tweet? A Netnography of India’s Subaltern Voices Entering the Public via Social Media
By Christopher Kujat

Kenyan Capitalist Narrative-  A discourse analysis of online media reporting on the Global Entrepreneurship Summit 2015
By Paula Holst 

Product and Process in Communication of Research for Development: A Study of Structures and Roles
By Catarina Nilsson

The Impact of the Refugee Crisis on the Tourism Industry of Kos Island: An Exploratory Study
By Eleni Rozali

Music and Identity in Egypt: Understanding a Hyrbid Identity
By Sallie Pisch

Expectations of Tourism and Social Change: A Case Study in Tenerife, Spain
By Tanja Westerhold

Textual and Visual Analysis of the Refugee Crisis through Four European Newspapers
By Christos Mavraganis

Communicating and Engaging with Crisis-affected People in Humanitarian Responses: A Case Study of the Red Cross Ebola Response in Liberia
By Lisa Qvarfordt

Communication and Implementation for Social Change: Mobilizing Knowledge Across Geographic and Academic Borders
By Krystle Van Hoof

Social Representations of Taukuka: A Common-sense Approach to the Preservation of Bellonese Intangible Cultural Heritage
By David Leeming

Speak Up! Young Women Share Powerful Stories from Their Own Lives
By Jenn Warren

Addressing Poverty in Bulgaria through UNICEF’s Local Project “A Family for Every Child”
By Milena Rangelova

Transformative Gender Narratives in South Caucasus: Conversations with NGO Women in the Armenian-Azeri Conflict
By Mindaugas Jocbalis

Sports as a Development Tool for Disadvantaged Children: The Case of Kampuchea Balopp in Cambodia
By Vicky Houssiere


The Complexities of Empowering Rural Indian Women-A story of Indian Panchayats
By Rushina Ansari

MPUNTUO: A KEYWORD APPROACH-Exploring Indigenous Discourses on Development in Akrofuom, Ghana
By Benita Abenaa Nyarko Uttenthal

Community Radio 2.0-Reinventing Participation, Empowerment and Community in Converging Public Spheres
By Elias Rådelius

Community media and peacebuilding in post-conflict Rwanda
By Isaac Mutasa

The social struggle of being HIJRA in Bangladesh-Cultural aspiration between inclusion and illegitimacy
By Tove Stenqvist

How has the Notion of Contagiousness Been Portrayed in Contemporary Cinema Through the Use of Audio and Visual
By Dannia Murslin 

Lgr 11’s Postcolonial Burden of History-The Swedish National Curriculum’s. Representation of the Postcolonial World in the Subject of History
By Erik Ryberg

‘I have something to tell the world’- A comparative discourse analysis of representations of refugees and asylum seekers in print media and texts written by refugees and asylum seekers themselves, within the frames of creative writing workshop
By Martin Portin

Humanism in Swedish political debate- A discourse analysis of the Swedish elections 2014
By Magdalena Karnebäck


Radio as a Communication Device for Development? Creating Sustainability and new forms of Economy through Participatory Radio Design: A case study on “Farm Radio International” in Ghana, Africa

By: Lisa Borelli

Abstract: As discussions around new media, information communication technology for development and globalisation arise, the need to analyse old media devices, such as radio, increase, in order to discuss whether or not those items should be replaced by new inventions, or if their existence is still valuable. This thesis has used the studies of the Canadian NGO Farm Radio International (FRI), conducted in Ghana, in order to understand how radio is used in developing countries, to help people improve their situation, why it is significantly more useful than other devices and what is done in order to improve the usage of radio. As questions around radio usage are included in each field research and every study ends with an evaluation of the programme, the data of FRI seems relevant to current discussions if radio can be seen as a device, which actively produces development. It has been analysed how it affects sustainability and economies for small scale farmers, which is then put into a larger framework, when discussing its relevance within international comparisons. The major focus of radio production is a method called Particpatory Radio Design, which restrctured and remediated radio per se, allowing to involve the listener actively. Main research question was to find out, how radio as an ICT creates sustainability and enhances the development of market economies with a particular focus on participatory methods. Finally all studies show that radio has a great influence in developing countries and especially in Ghana, foremost when it is used in participatory ways. Radio cannot be neglected and has to be part of active research within the field of ICT and media influence, in order to get sufficient results on technologies and their impact.

Exploring the role of “communications” in a development project: what, to whom, and how?
By: Tina Hirschbuehl

Abstract: Southeast Asia faces severe sanitation-related problems despite a deceptive exterior. In Thailand, for example, practically everyone has access to a toilet, but treatment of faecal sludge is inadequate, with large amounts dumped illegally on soil or in water bodies. This paper studies a sanitation project led by the Bangkok-based Asian Institute of Technology and financed by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and investigates what it means to “communicate” a project such as this one to the target audience. Communication has come to be seen as indispensable in development projects, most of which now include a communications component or at least allocate a budget for communications work. But what does this really mean? This study examines communication in the context of development projects and the distinction between communication for public relations and communication for development.

One of the project’s biggest challenges is the nature of the topic: it is difficult – often taboo – to talk about sanitation. And yet, the success of a project such as this one depends directly on its ability to communicate the issues. Thus, a first step would be to determine awareness and willingness to discuss the issue of the large amount of untreated sludge that directly enters the food chain or the waterways. Asking what, to whom, and how to communicate, the study uses qualitative interviews to seek to identify and understand views held by the target audience – householders that are classified as “urban poor” in peri-urban areas of Bangkok.

ICTs in Education in Africa
By Gillian Rose

Abstract: Africa could become a force in the global economy but to do that it needs a well- educated population. Schools and colleges across the continent, with a few exceptions, are mediocre, to poor. In most rural areas schools are underfunded, with bad teachers, high drop-out rates and limited resources.

One way of improving education could be through the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Africa is behind the rest of the world for ICT adoption yet most African countries are boasting double-digit annual growth in Internet and mobile phone utilization (Excelsior TNO Innovation for Life p.15) What the rest of the world takes for granted – computers in the lab; laptops in the classroom; books available on e-readers or mobile phones and of course teachers trained to use them – much of Africa can only imagine.

But there is a deeper more complex question about ICT growth in Africa: how this affects the so-called ‘digital divide’ and how it relates to issues of gender, age, literacy and access. To be able to use ICTs, the user needs to be literate and have regular access and a motivation for using them. Men grow up being more comfortable around technology, usually have more money to acquire it and are more likely to get jobs using it. In African homes boys are more likely to attend school than girls, more likely to get a cell phone early, more likely to go on and get a job where there is new technology and so the pattern perpetuates. The digital divide is not only about the lack of access to ICTs in Africa it is also about the lack of access for women within that group, lack of access for an older generation and those who remain illiterate.

There are plenty of initiatives trying to address this. Several are studied in this paper and others are referenced as being works-in-progress. Governments are investing in the education of their youthful population but it is often a question of priorities between needing infrastructure, power, connectivity and a good system of teacher training as well as ICTs.

By Aleksandra Kowalska

Abstract: In my degree project I’ve analysed three artistic interventions in the conflict area (West Bank) in terms of their contribution to development and social change. I’ve looked at them through the prism of communication field and identified the mechanisms and elements that make them function or make a similar impact as social movements and other form of activism. Except the intellectual aim of my paper (ambition to contribute to the wider intellectual frame on societal development through communication), I’ve tried to make it useful for development practitioners, by suggesting and justifying the method that could be used for impact measurement of such type of interventions. It is not about the assessing of a programme or project, but changes in behaviours, relationships, attitudes and activities of people, who are the ‘recipients’ of the project. I believe it’s quite a unique approach to look at the development projects in general, avoiding the traditional quantitative methods or based on personal judgments and beliefs (not always corresponding to the real state of affairs) qualitative tools to evaluate the change.

Three projects I’ve chosen were conducted by different artists (in the same area) and were aimed at evoking positive emotions in people (in broader context – propagate peace). The communication method was art in all cases, but different tools, circumstances and other factors played an important role in their perception by local communities and my judgement of their possible influence, potential to contribute to a process of social change.

I’ve tried to embed the artistic intervention in the context of communication processes for social change, next to the theoretical concepts of social movement activism, revealing its potential to contribute to the process of changing the mind set of people, development towards peace. I came from the assumption that development is essentially about people relating to each other and their environments. The social change I’ve found out to be desired within the area I’ve focused on was based on changing the perception of ‘the other’, so called ‘enemy’, by rethinking the current status quo and see the human factor within this serious long-lasting conflict.

NGOs, ICTs and women’s empowerment. An interview study in Kenya and Tanzania
By: Therese Sjödin

Abstract: Reports show that a majority of Africans have mobile phones and that the use of smartphones is increasing as they are more useful than computers. However, many reports are very general not looking at specific groups of the society at a local level. Women generally are not in focus when it comes to technology and information access, but ICTs can be critical for empowerment and participation. This argument is connected to ICT4D, a field of research in which NGOs are one of the main actors working to make benefits of ICTs available to more people in accordance with a target of the Millennium Development Goals.

With this background, the aim of this degree project is to investigate what access to ICTs NGOs, women’s groups, as well as women, of the communities in focus have and how this access and usage influence empowerment of women. The result is based on interviews which took place during a few weeks in Kenya and Tanzania in February 2014. A theoretical analysis of the material has been done with a background in the concepts of globalization, digital divides and gender theory. This has created the possibility to assess how the issue of access is related to the issue of empowerment.

The results show that NGOs often have one or a few computers in their offices which mostly are used to communicate with partners and retrieve information, while the women’s groups have possibilities to borrow computers but rarely the skills to be able to. For women in the rural areas access to ICTs is low, the exception being mobile phones, while women and organizations in bigger cities have better access and use ICTs differently. The conclusion made is that access to ICTs mostly is related to empowerment of women in an indirect way since an intermediary in the form of an NGO is needed at this stage, due to the low access among women, to spread information and knowledge which in consequence can work to empower women.

Access and Accountability – A Study of Open Data in Kenya
By: Tove Silveira Wennergren

Abstract: This study explores Open Data actors in Kenya, focusing on the issue of transparency and accountability. Drawing on an exploratory quantitative analysis of existing statistical material of usage of the Kenya Open Data Initiative website and 15 qualitative interviews conducted primarily in Nairobi, the study analyses key factors – both enabling and disabling – that shape transparency initiatives connected to Open Data in Kenya.

The material is analysed from three perspectives:
a) a review based on existing research around impact and effectiveness of transparency and accountability initiatives;
b) based on theories with a behavioural approach in connection to transparency and accountability; and
c) introducing a critical perspective on power relations based on Michel Foucault’s concept of ‘governmentality’.
The study shows that the Kenya Open Data Initiative has potential to become an effective transparency and accountability initiative in Kenya, but that its future is heavily dependent on current trends within the political context and fluctuations in power relations. Applying a stronger user-perspective and participatory approach is critical.

Open Data is a relatively new area within the governance and development field, and academia can play an important role in enhancing methodology and impact assessments to create more effective and sustainable initiatives and ensure that future Open Data initiatives can be both accessible and constitute a base for accountability.

Collaborative Innovation: A shared discourse within Phnom Penh’s co-working community?
By: Justin Pearce-Neudorf

Abstract: This paper explores the existence of a shared community involving the members, users and organisers of three collaborative work spaces located in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Situated as part of an emergent global phenomenon, these spaces, despite having notable differences, share many important features and are, I argue, part of a knowledge exchanging cluster of grassroots entrepreneurialism and innovation-oriented organisations, groups and events in the Phnom Penh area. I explore this cluster as a community in two ways: firstly through the mapping of a knowledge architecture locating the spaces and their actors as nodes within a flow of relationships and activities, secondly, via a networked ethnographic inquiry tracing these flows to actors within the network through qualitative research methods. In doing so I reveal the degree to which there exists a shared community perceived by the users and organisers of these spaces as well highlighting potential opportunities for greater sharing of knowledge, ideas and experience. The paper finds that though a nascent community does exist, there is still significant variance in the levels of cognisance of this community by the different actors as well as in the approach to its engagement. Despite this, there remains, in large part, a shared set of goals and values paving the way for future community collaboration.

Application of digital gamification technologies in public libraries to engage disadvantaged children in learning practices. A case study of Lithuania
By: Karolina Lapinaite

Abstract: The aim of this thesis is to explore how public libraries through the use of digital gamification elements can contribute in improving disadvantaged children’s engagement in learning practices and motivate them to seek for better school results. Education being a cornerstone defining individual’s future employment possibilities, social status as well as nation’s well-being shouldn’t be considered as only a matter of schools. The role of a public library as a possible valuable contributor for supporting educational experiences as well as children’s social integration is addressed in this study. This research looks into the topic through a development angle, so the study does not question the quality of the educational content presented in today’s schools – it rather addresses employing digital solutions to create new opportunities for successful learning experiences and children’s integration into school environment, with a particular focus on disadvantaged students. A discussion on approaches, motivational factors, the advantages and disadvantages of digital games for learning is raised in the study and serves as a theoretical background. The second part of the study is focused on the analysis of a real-life example. Digital socio-educational game “The Challenge”, created and employed in Lithuania’s public libraries, is analyzed addressing its technological side as well as its impact. The final results of the research and recommendations for possible improvement are brought up in the concluding part of the study.

Digital media and democratization. The case of Myanmar
By: Santi Mayor Farguell

Abstract: This research project aims at exploring the role and potential of digital media in the current democratization process in Myanmar. Understanding democratization as a process of social change that implies empowering civil society and ensuring equality, the question is how digital media contribute to building a participatory democracy in Myanmar after a five decades long military regime. The fast chain of events that led to the recent gradual opening of Myanmar raises doubts and expectations colliding with the vibrant reality of the country.
In order to analyse the role of digital media within such a fast-changing scenario, this research intends to answer the following questions:
a) How do digital media portray Myanmar? This question will be analysed in relation to the media discourse of the official visit paid by Myanmar’s President Thein Sein to US President Barack Obama in Washington on 20 May 2013.
b) How do stakeholders in Myanmar use digital media for democratization? To what extent can digital media become a tool for democratization within a very limited connectivity context? What challenges may the digital media imply in the democratization of Myanmar? Semi-structured interviews with stakeholders were conducted in Yangon to gather up-to-date and first-hand insights.
The combination of two qualitative research methods, discourse analysis and semi-structured qualitative interviews, aims at building a deeper understanding of the role and potential of digital media in Myanmar.
This research pays attention to specificities of Myanmar’s cultural, political and economic context, with a focus on technology and Internet. Field research showed the importance of taking into account the role of social media. A brief theoretical discussion of key concepts such as ‘digital media’, ‘social change’ and ‘democratization’ is provided to build a solid basis for analysis.

UNDP & Communication for Development. A Case Study of the Indigenous Voices Project in Laos
By: Linnea Ericsson

Abstract: This Degree Project examines the way in which UNDP defines Communication for Development (C4D) through a case study of a community radio project in Laos.
Focus lies on evaluating three major themes or issues– firstly, how is Communication for Development defined by UNDP? Secondly, how does this type of project line up with the agency’s special mandate – democratic governance, partnership with governments and poverty alleviation? Thirdly, how are C4D projects sustained, evaluated, and how do they achieve local ownership?
Research is carried out through discourse analysis of project -and external communication documents and qualitative interviews with three informants with insight into the project. In the analysis, issues about the definition of Communication for Development arise, as well as the question of whether Communication for Empowerment (C4E) is a more useful term for UNDP’s special mandate. Similarly, it is highlighted that the very definition of C4D can become politicized and make it harder for certain UN agencies to participate in the discourse regarding it. At the same time, UNDP is hauled as an organization with a unique part to play in developing C4D/E because of its relationship to governments and strong focus on democratic governance and capacity development.
Additionally, the paper finds that UNDP to a certain extent struggles to find a place for C4D/E within their strategic documents and programming. Without such management, projects risk losing focus or drive once key personnel are no longer in place, risking the sustainability of the programs. There are also issues with defining a proper way to evaluate these types of projects, as empowerment and reform oriented processes are harder to fit into the results framework than other types of development work.

Public Private Partnerships in ICT4D. A Critical Discourse Analysis on the Partnership between UNESCO and Microsoft out of a Communication for Development Perspective
By: Michael Barla

Abstract: The private sector has become an intriguingly important partner in the field of development. Organizations such as the UN, has due to decreased funding from member states, become more open to collaborate with the private sector to fulfil its mandate. On the same hand, the emerging trend of ICT4D has effectively led to Public Private Partnerships between UN entities and some of the global-acting corporations in this sector. This paper looks into the partnership agreement between the UNESCO and Microsoft using the Critical Discourse Analysis as its method, to investigate the influential factors that mend these partnerships out of a Communication for Development (C4D) perspective. The leading question for this study has sought to answer how this partnership has met the agenda of UNESCO and if there have been any subsequent compromises towards the private partner in how the private actor has been engaged for the PPP. Furthermore, this study
explored if there were any C4D approaches in the understanding of ICT4D agreement. Outcomes disclosed that although the objectives of UNESCO were explicitly acknowledged, there were several unexplained stakes benefiting Microsoft’s corporate agenda in the agreement. Both parties acknowledged participatory and empowerment processes as key elements of ICT4D. However, the study unveiled a conception of ICT4D towards modernization promoting technologies and standards of development belonging to the Global North instead of the beneficiaries.

Communicating Abortion. How Sexual and Reproductive Rights Organizations in Colombia Communicate to the Public Opinion
By: Annika Dalén

Abstract: This degree project examines the question of how Colombian NGOs communicate sexual and reproductive rights issues to the public opinion, and how this has changed over time. The research is carried out through a case study of two Colombian organizations that work with sexual and reproductive rights, particularly the implementation of legal abortion. The analysis parts from a gender perspective, understanding gender as a constitutive element of social relationships as well as a primary way of signifying relationships of power. One of the main findings in the study is that the
historical point of departure for this research, the LAICIA campaign that accompanied the strategic litigation that led to the partial legalization of abortion in Colombia in 2006, represents a paradigm shift in how communications were managed by civil society organizations in Colombia. Today, communications is seen as a strategic tool to help obtain a certain objective, and mobilize public opinion support, rather than as a way of convincing opponents to change their positions. LAICIA also changed the terms of the debate, introducing new parameters lifting out the issue from the traditional private sphere – delimited to a moral and religious issue, and into the public sphere, as an issue of general concern for society – not just for individual women.
Today, however, much of the communication efforts are directed at impeding backlashes rather than advancing positions, and communicating reactively rather than proactively. The two organizations studied have some convergences in their work with communications, in spite of certain ideological differences, and the impact of their communication efforts could be reinforced if these were coordinated to a greater extent between organizations.

Constant and instant notification. Youth experiences of online security, relations and information in La Paz/El Alto
By: Anna-Therese Nordeman

Abstract: Several studies explore new technology and social media usage, especially in the global North. This study set out to investigate what kind of experiences and opinions youth in La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia, had of their internet and communication technology usage, through semi-structural interviews, at the same time comparing the possible differences in this between LGBT and non-LGBT youth. That way I am trying to add a perspective and voice in the new media discourse, as well as adding to the knowledge of my partner organization, Svalorna Latinamerika.
I decided to focus on three main online activities; security issues, relationship building and information management, and the nine informants were encouraged to share their thoughts and experiences as well as information about their general ICT usage.
The results showed that the youth’s internet usage was depending more on their interest in the different media and platforms, rather than on their sexual orientation or gender. The LGBT informants however had more experiences of discrimination and threat online. Also, all of the informant’s seemed to create new relations not only to other users online, but also to the platforms and media itself, this depending on how much they were using the platforms.
Finally I could see that the informants could satisfy many different needs with their ICT and social media use, depending on their interests, resources and time spent online.

Organisations. A Battle for Life, in the Name of Globalisation
By: Charlotte Södergren

Abstract: The aim of this study is to look at how organisations’ discourse is tailored to reach and persuade the donors, how it is constructed in terms of representation and power, and if there has been a change on representation of aid over the last decade. The study is conducted from texts and visuals from the Anglo-Saxon Save the Children Organization and the French Apprentis d’Auteuil Catholic Foundation to evaluate cultural points in relation to discourse constructions; most of the selected Material have been extracted from respective website at the same period of time (2003; 2013-2014) to make the comparison fair. The theoretical framework includes communication for development, post-colonialism, social theology, representation, discourse and power; the methodology is related to discourse analysis and visual analysis. The deconstruction of the texts have revealed that the traditional way of representing the disadvantaged as the voiceless ‘Others’ and the hegemonic approach ,in the name of globalisation, are still strongly present as it seems to be a trigger for the act of donation. Nevertheless, according to studies, a new wind of social responsibility instead of Christian duty is emerging. A gap between the traditional representation of aid and actual modern actions implemented by organisations has been noticed mostly on the French national level. The recommendation to the organisations would be to compose a new discourse in their communication, placing the helper and the helped on a balanced representation, giving a common ‘human’ voice, promoting participation and insuring sustainable social change; towards a real changing of mentalities of the audience. This communication should also be homogenised between ‘old’ and ‘new’ media as well as speeches held by the organisations staff.

Social Media and the “Menace to Society”: A case study of the potential and limitations of social media as an alternative to Turkish mainstream media in the Gezi Park protests
By: Sofia Hafdell

Abstract: In May-June 2013, the protests against the Turkish government’s plans to demolish Gezi Park in Istanbul quickly spread into a regime-critical movement across Turkey, triggered by widespread media censorship and excessive use of police force against demonstrators. In the absence of Turkish mainstream news coverage, Turkish citizens effectively relied on social media to access information from the ground and to resist against the Turkish authorities. On the background of these events and the representations placing social media as an alternative to Turkish mainstream media, this paper analyzes social media usage’s role in the Gezi Park protests as well as its potential to encourage civic participation and social change in Turkey. The paper draws from theoretical discussions of mediated mobilization, citizen journalism, civic cultures, and alternative media as an alternative and as rhizomatic in relation to mainstream media. It builds on a social constructivist approach to research and combines critical discourse analysis of two selected alternative media texts with qualitative interviews with Gezi Park activists. The paper argues that representations of social media as an alternative to the Turkish mainstream media fail to consider the complexities of social media usage for the activists as well as the complicated relationship between media and the state in Turkey and its consequences for open, democratic debate.

Social Media for Development. KONY 2012
By: Lucia Mati

Abstract: Following study examines the short film Kony 2012 produced by NGO Invisible Children. The film was released on March 4, 2012 and had a purpose of stopping Joseph Kony, a militant leader of the group Lord Resistance Army in Uganda who abducts children to become sex slaves and child soldiers. The film was spread virally and have been called one of the most viral video ever. The aim of the thesis is to examine the discursive representations of the issues in the Kony 2012 that motivated the audience to take action. Why were Kony 2012 called one of the most viral video ad ever? The methods used to answer the research question are semiotic analysis and critical discursive analysis. The dissertation concludes amongst others that emotional appeals which lead the audience to take action, urgency equals action, simple actions and solution made the video go viral. The created context of the video that involved the audience made them feel a responsibility on acting. The unique discourse and engagement made the video achieve the extraordinary awareness.

The Egyptian Revolution – A study of the representation of female agency in online Egyptian newspapers
By: Sofia Refai

Abstract: The Egyptian revolution gained international attention in 2011 and became front news all over the world. Social media and other types of media were widely discussed as catalysts of the revolution. The revolution was ultimately labeled “The Facebook revolution” and was highly associated with social media. Moreover Egyptian online newspapers are parts of many Egyptians lives, however they were not mentioned a lot in circumstances of the revolution. This degree project is a study of Egyptian online newspapers and the way they reported on females during and after the revolution. The study focuses on Egyptian online newspapers and raises questions regarding the media portrayal of women in relation to the revolution. Aspects such as semantics and language as well as social questions are raised. The analysis is conducted through a methodology which includes content analysis and semantic analysis. The analysis was carried out through a critical reading of chosen news articles from Egyptian online newspapers. The aim of the research is to gain a greater understanding of how Egyptian online newspapers viewed females as participants of the revolution and to map out how they were represented in the chosen media.
Research questions: How did Egyptian online newspapers represent the role of the Egyptian woman in the revolution and the post revolution time? How did Egyptian online newspapers portray the Egyptian woman in terms of being an active or passive member of the revolution and the post revolution time? In what way are Egyptian women assigned different roles as oppressed actors, heroes or frontiers of the revolution, or others in the articles? What are the semantic dimensions of the articles?
Methods: This study analyzed English news articles from online Egyptian news papers, addressing females in regards to the Egyptian revolution in 2011. The data collection was analyzed by using content and semantic analysis.
Findings: The analyses show that Egyptian women are mainly portrayed as “oppressed” and subject to abuse and discrimination, as well as exposed to inequality in the Egyptian society.

Youth civic engagement in Bhutan: Obedient citizens or social activists?
By: Riikka Suhonen

Abstract: People’s participation in their own development is at the core of Communication for Development. This study explores the potential and barriers for youth civic engagement especially among the urban youth in Bhutan, a newly democratised country in the Eastern Himalayas. Youth Initiative (YI), a project begun in the fall of 2013 by a group of local youth and mentored by a local civil society organisation, the Bhutan Centre for Media and Democracy, was chosen as the case study. The study analyses how and in which arenas youth enact their citizenship in Bhutan; how young people themselves see their opportunities to participate in democratic processes, analysing social, cultural and political factors influencing their
participation; whether their civic participation is critical or conforming to the existing social structures; how could Facebook foster democratic culture and youth civic engagement; and what is the link between youth civic engagement and social capital.
Data were collected through three (3) focus group discussions with youth and nine (9) qualitative interviews with founders or steering committee members of the YI. The 19 young participants of the focus group discussions were between 17 to 28 years
old, two of the groups consisting of YI representatives and one of unemployed youth. The interview data together with relevant textual sources were analysed through the conceptual framework of participatory democracy and social capital. Three distinct
themes could be identified through the qualitative thematic analysis: 1. Youth agency in the public sphere; 2. Inequality and corruption; and 3. Cultural change. Particularly informal cultural barriers, such as respecting authorities and the lack of democratic culture to have an equal, critical dialogue in the public sphere were seen as main obstacles for youth civic engagement in Bhutan. The findings indicate that youth civic engagement is a crucial component in strengthening social capital, mainly mutual trust across different groups and generations of people. The study argues that it is possible to create a space for inter-generational dialogue that encompasses and respects the diverse, but overlapping spheres of youth
agency, democratic communication and social harmony.

Ethnographic Representations of Self and The Other in Museums. Ideas of Identity and Modernity
By: Yee-Yin Yap

Abstract: In the process of pushing forward towards utopian ideals of modernity, western ethnography museums have been collecting and classifying non-western peoples and their cultures thereby creating a shared identity of superiority of western civilization against the ‘primitive others’. Ethnographic displays have been complicit in inventing and reinforcing through its exhibiting clout this desire to be modern that is conceived along modern and post-modern notions of industrialization, urbanization and development. The noble savage myth is thus a necessary evil created in order to provide an inferior ‘Other’ that can be set against a modern, civilized Self. The thesis will also look at how ethnography museums represent Self and The Other and the nexus that connects issues of identity, race, difference, as well as heritage, history, and memory, framing the discussion along the following:
• What signifies civilized culture? What constitutes modernity?
• What and whom decide when an object is art or ethnographic artefact?
• What lays behind the fetish for cultural artefacts, linking to concepts of ‘fetishism’ like disavowal and the fascination of The Other?
• How does the power to represent look like?
• How do visitors receive the museums’ messages, and what are these messages?
• And what are the possible alternatives to the western exhibiting approach?

The thesis will use textual analysis and interviews of museum visitors to study the EC project, Fetish Modernity Exhibition, the Musée du Quai Branly in Paris, the Musée de l’Histoire de l’Immigration in Paris, District Six Museum in Cape Town and the Museum of Immigration in London.

My findings are that it is very difficult for Western ethnography museums to transcend its European colonial ways of exhibiting The Other, in order to fairly and meaningfully present non-western cultures on equal terms. Framed by nationalist and colonialist ethnographic frameworks, curators often have elitist agendas which causes a disconnect with the museum experience of the cultural consumer, and the power to represent creates an uneven relationship with the cultures being exhibited.

A Billion Reasons to Sell Africa – A Kenyan Case Study
By: Jackie Christie:
Abstract: ‘Africa Rising’ is an ideology which is gaining increasing traction and momentum amongst economists, analysts and those who would wish to present a positive perspective on the continent’s future. Advertising, more than any other mass media platform stratifies its audience along patterns of consumption and as such manipulates, underlines and marks social difference in ways which are now so embedded as to be commonplace. Using a familiar repertoire of images, Africa Rising is ‘advertising’ the message of positivity and optimism in the same way a soap manufacturer might sell a new handwash. The language and techniques of mass-market billboard advertising – what Stuart Hall would identify as a signifying practice – have technical and semiotic echoes in the branding applied to this ‘renaissance’ theme. The effect of this ideological makeover is to forge a conducive environment to gain buy-in from a sector of Kenyan society that can afford the luxury of the aspiration Africa Rising promises. The messages and values communicated by Africa Rising demonstrate ‘a new ideological use for pictures’ (Sontag 2003: 29), however they are not targeted to those at the base of the pyramid who remain socially and economically trapped by poverty and basic subsistence. The visual rhetoric employed by Africa Rising mines a semiotic vocabulary replete with norms and codes which have meaning inside and beyond the continent and which rely on traditional and received visual conventions. If the African renaissance is to translate into a meaningful ideology of transformation rather than ‘a new brick in the wall of cliches’ (Pieterse 2002: 60) it has to speak to all sectors of society and recognize that external indicators of progress do not necessarily serve those who least have the means to serve themselves.

Dark Horses or White Knights: Donors and Gender Projects in the oPt
Mallory de Blois
Abstract: Financial dependency and a trend in donor-driven gender equality and women’s empowerment projects in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt) have undoubtedly had an effect on the way in which NGOs are working and evolving: often projects are designed to fulfill donor requirements – and thereby policies – instead of creating an agenda which is politically and socially “home grown”. This paper analyses the USAID gender policy paper (as an example of foreign donor policy) and interviews conducted with legal, programme and gender experts in the oPt, exploring the challenges and gaps between policy and practice. The research uses qualitative research methods to analyze USAID discourse – exploring concepts such as representation, ideology and power – and general assumptions and perspectives towards women’s equality and empowerment in the Opt versus how this translates into practice.

Out of Africa. New media, back-writing and the African diaspora
By: Barbara Nussbaumer-Hauer

Paths, Palimpsests and Voids of Dé kolon εl í za shɔn
By: Sonja Hohenbild

Navigating Distant Worlds: Interactive web documentary and engagement with issues of international development and social change
By: Charlotte Jenner
Abstract: Whilst the use of documentary film to mediate issues of international development and social change is nothing new, the tools of production, media environment, expectations of, and relationships between, audiences and content are evolving at a rapid pace, bringing new approaches and challenges. As INGOs, development agencies and media producers attempt to engage audiences in issues of international development and social change in an increasing saturated media environment, many are looking for more innovative, Web 2.0- native ways of presenting these issues. Interactive web documentary, a format that has emerged from the dynamic and frenetic Web 2.0 media environment, combining digital, interactive and social media with the documentary form, has begun to be used to communicate with and engage audiences in these issues. But how do audiences respond to this format? Within this paper I investigate, through a survey of three audience groups and two case study examples, supplemented by semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group discussion, how interactive web documentary might affect audience engagement with issues of international development and social change. In so doing I uncover three modes of engagement: active engagement, emotional engagement and critical engagement, which appear to be enhanced by the format. At the same time I discuss barriers to engagement, such as access, audience interest and tensions between discourses of gaming and issues of international development and social change, all of which must be negotiated if the format is to succeed in its aims.

Analysing visual representations in the North Korean Refugee Movement for Social Change and Justice
By: Pearl Jones
Abstract: Art has the ability to give voice to the vast number of ordinary citizens suffering under totalitarian rule in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, both past and present. This paper uses a mixed-analysis approach to examine three selected examples of visual representations concerning the North Korean Refugee Movement in order to illustrate how Art functions as a strategic component of C4D, and how it can be effectively used by social movements as a way of framing movements’ identities in collective action, promoting awareness and enhancing resource mobilisation through the emotive communication of knowledge. Art has been found to play an important role in the communication and transfer of knowledge by creating powerful emotions and providing a voice to the otherwise voiceless. Visual texts can be used strategically by social movements in the area of C4D to reinforce/create a collective identity and aid in movement participation by enhancing solidarity and self-assurance while creating motivation for collective action.

Case Study of the 2009 Iranian Presidential Election and Uprising in Iran: The Impact of Social Media on Social Change and Political Powers
By: Shariar Khonsari

Socio-Economic impacts brought about by the mobile money transfer revolution in the Maasai community in Kenya
By: Rose Mugo

‘Forgotten communication’ – The case study of sustainable rural development through rural tourism – project of mini camping sites in western Serbia
By: Denis Murselovic
Abstract: This Project Work looks into the communicational dimension of one development strategy for rural development through tourism in rural areas of western Serbia. In 2011 the regional Development agency of Uzice – ‘Zlatibor’, together with the Camping Association of Serbia started a project of mini camping sites in the rural areas of western Serbia. The aim was to meet an unemployment issue by capacitating and empowering locals to take an active part in rural camping tourism. The purpose of this study is to determine both strengths and weaknesses in the development project from a communicational point of view. The methods used to gather data in this research are qualitative semi structured interviews and participant observation. The study examines the presence and/or absence of C4D in the strategy’s planning and implementation, and considers ways in which a stronger and clearer focus on C4D could lead to enhancement of the process of community-based development in the rural area and building of tourist capacities within the local community. The findings of the study indicate that an unclear responsibility sharing between stakeholders and neglecting of the communicational aspect in the planning and implementation of the project could lead to an insufficient communication among participants. This lacking communication has shown to suppress the full potential of the development project.

Modern head, ancient shoulders. Homosexuality in Nepal
By: Nimtaz Noordin

Tweets for #Peace. Exploring the ICT4Peace through three tweeting peace initiatives
By: Johanna Westerlund

The Moving Voices. A case study of the Moving Voices Radio Documentary Course for young refugee journalists
By: Reeta Ylä-Jussila



‘Even if it is not your fault, it is still your responsibility’: Live stream as means of civic engagement
By Rebecca Bengtsson
Abstract: A well-functioning media is a given part of any society, and can be a valuable tool in the democratising process of a country. The media is traditionally given the role of providing citizens with information about political events in society, and as a result enabling them to make informed decisions. Before the 1990s most of the Middle Eastern and North African media was controlled by governments and because of that they often failed in their responsibility as information providers. As new media such as the internet and satellite television were introduced to the region, the media paradigm shifted and a new arena for public debate arose and has continued to grow ever since. During the 2010-2011 uprisings in the region social media platforms were used by citizens to spread news about demonstrations and political moves, not only within countries, but also globally. Livestreaming applications in particular were used successfully, and videos filmed by citizen journalists were broadcast on international media channels This thesis focuses on the use of livestreaming by citizen journalists in Egypt and Syria to accomplish a social change, and on citizen journalism as an act of civic engagement. To provide an analytic frame, this thesis uses the work of Dahlgren (2009) and his six modes of civic engagement, to better and understand the role of citizen journalists in changing society. Through a number of qualitative interviews with citizen journalists, traditional journalists and Bambuser, this thesis concludes that citizen journalism did play and still plays an important role when it comes to civic engagement in Egypt and Syria although weather or not it might be able to take the role of traditional media in society remains to be seen. The interviews with citizen journalists were conducted in Cairo, Egypt and funded through a Minor Field Study grant.

Radio and Governance in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone
By Claire Ziwa
Abstract: This research examines the extent to which media professionals are using radio to advance the governance agenda in post-conflict Sierra Leone. The study focuses on the role of participatory communication across community radio stations and addresses how effective such programmes are at building transparency and accountability between the citizen and the state. The research considers how community radio can provide a platform for citizens to express their views and hold those in power to account, within the challenges of a post-conflict setting.

The combination of radio and mobile phone as a form of participatory communication. Case study: Pamoja FM, Kibera Kenya
By: Caroline Ambwere

The Kabir Project. Bangalore and Mumbai
By: Itziar Ancín
Abstract: The Kabir Project (K.P.) was born in Bangalore, India, in 2002, after the Gujarat pogrom, which occurred in the same year. In the context of increasing divisions in Indian society, defined by religion, social class, caste and gender, this research explores how this initiative, through live concerts and documentary films, spreads the folk music traditions of the 15th century mystic poet Kabir along with his messages of unity and understanding between confronted identity groups. This study presents the context of violence between Muslims and Hindus since the Indian Partition and the reasons for gendered violence in the conflict. It focuses also on the connections between globalization and minorities’ prosecution in liberal democracies; on the colonial roots and socioeconomic reasons which led to the Gujarat massacre in 2002; and the social role of the mystic as bridging cultural and religious differences. Through two complementary methods: in-depth interviews to audiences and organizers at the K. P. festivals in Bangalore and survey questionnaires distributed to the Kabir Festival Mumbai audiences, this study tries to answer the following questions: What is the potential for social change of the K. P. in the world-views of today’s Indian citizens? Are the messages presented by films and folk music capable of generating positive attitudes towards dialogue between confronted identity categories? In which ways? The research reveals the success of the K. P. to challenge audiences’ minds through communication for development events, whose objectives are reached by spreading Kabir values through artistic forms, and by creating shared spaces between confronted identity sections. Festivals in rural areas help to diminish the distance between those antagonized communities. In addition, urban festivals also generate positive attitudes in elites towards dialogue and coexistence, since that is the social profile of the audience.

Progress or regression? How poverty and development are portrayed in advertising
By: Linnea Bergman
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show how organizations portray the developing world and development support in advertisements and how it relates to the criticism existing against development support. What messages are sent to the reader? Do the advertisements contradict the existing criticism against development support or do they reinforce stereotypes and prejudices? Four organizations are analyzed: the Red Cross; Save the Children; PLAN Sweden; and We Effect. The main focus is on their campaigns and outreaching work connected to these campaigns. The analysis is based on a qualitative discourse analysis of the material complemented by a semiotic approach. The developing world is presented as old-fashioned and out obsolete. The problems existing there are simplified and insufficient solutions are offered. Children are commonly occurring and often presented as the main receivers of the support even though the support is available for all ages. Women are over-represented, while men are rarely occurring. However, men are indirect portrayed as the perpetrators and thus the notion of men is present, presenting them as dangerous and irresponsible. The women on the other hand are associated with traditional work e.g. cleaning and sewing as well as caring about the family. Despite that the organizations work all over the world the pictures mainly show black women and children. Overall the developing world is depicted as dependent on others to reach positive development. Difference is accentuated, which could increase prejudices and stereotypes. It is mainly rural environment that is portrayed, which could be seen as depicting the development world as old-fashion and timeless. Positive images of Sweden are used while negative images of other places creating a huge gap between the readers and the people and places presented.

Theater as the Elicitive Third Space: How Theater for Development has been used to prevent violence in Kenya
By: Irina Bernebring Journiette
Abstract: In this paper theater is understood as a tool to communicate social transformation and the purpose of this study is to investigate the use of Theater for Development in relation to preventing violence and explore if, how and why the use differ in relation to preventing direct or structural violence. By analyzing the narrated experiences of Kenyan theaterpractitioners work through the theoretical perspectives presented by Homi K. Bhabha and John Paul Lederach this paper then argues that theater can create an elicitive Third Space where the passive spectators in the audience can be turned into empathetic, conscientized spect-actors and where conflicting communication can occur without violence. It then goes on to theorize on how the explanation to the differences exists in what the performance need to achieve in the elicitive Third space.

Human trafficking prevention through edutainment in Cambodia
By: Jenny Björk

Rama Ataúro – Repercussions for empowerment and possibilities of social change arising from the production of a youth-led community newspaper in Ataúro, Timor-Leste
By: Joana Camargo Saraiva
Abstract: This research is aimed at discussing the impact of participatory communication on empowering, increasing agency, and mobilizing citizenship that fosters social change. I conducted my fieldwork with a group of 21 youth (seven women and 14 men), with ages ranging from 15 to 30 years, who reside in Ataúro, Timor-Leste. This group participates in a community wall-newspaper founded in 2008. The methodologies applied were participant observation and qualitative interviews. The text is divided into three chapters; the first explores the societal structure and the constructing of youth, and the process of resignification of youth roles and identities from the work of young people in the community newspaper. In the following chapter, the internal dynamic of the newspaper group is analysed through the participatory communication framework, elaborating on empowerment processes and showing how this promotes changes and continuities in traditional structures. Finally, the last chapter looks at interactions of the group with their community and the way the negotiation between new and traditional practices develops. Youth are more empowered and the changes occurring throughout the participatory process suggest that ruptures and continuities between conserving and changing traditional practices, and the perception of ‘youth’ in the community, are occurring.

ICT for development. The role of the participatory communication in fostering social change within projects of crowd sourcing maps – Case study of Map Kibera Project
By: Alise Gedgauda

To Reveal, Remember and Expose
By: Sonja Gu

Communication for Development in Mithilanchal, one of the poorest regions in India
By: Tanushree Sandilya Jha

Semiotics of Humanitarian Photography
By: Konstantinos Paglamidis
Abstract: Communication campaigns by major organizations in the field of development have been heavily dependent on humanitarian photography to motivate and attract donors. This genre of photography serves its purpose by informing, surprising and attracting the attention of a broad audience. It captures real life and real problems people in need have to deal with in remote areas of the world. This paper delves into the use of visual semiotics in the context of humanitarian photography and for the purpose of fund-raising by case study research of recent communication campaigns as implemented by major players in the field such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Global Fund to Fights AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Doctors without Border, CARE and Save the Children. The purpose is to identify key issues which allow for the elicitation of a sign framework specific to the fund-raising genre and its idiosyncratic use of visual signs in photography based on a broad theoretical basis of semiotics. The analysis focuses on the content and methods of signification of photography in each case study. The effectiveness of humanitarian photography and important aspects of its function is discussed in the scope of its use as a communication medium for development.

An Assessment of Video Advocacy as an Instrument for Change
By: Carmen Scherkenbach
Abstract: With the rise of new information and communication technologies, advocacy campaigns in development have experienced a resurgence of video as an instrument to enrich outreach efforts and build bridges, to empower marginalised groups and rescue the culture and heritage of indigenous people, and to reach decision-makers – and ultimately change policies and laws. The use of “humanising” elements through film, such as the oral testimonies of individuals, allows practitioners to transport the realities and conditions of specific localities to audiences otherwise unable to experience them directly. The present study examines the mechanisms through which video advocacy reaches audiences, looking specifically at trade-offs and knock-on effects among key stakeholders, based upon the case study of the Our Voices Matter advocacy film. The video features oral testimonies of local women survivors of rape from the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It is employed to campaign for justice for women victims of sexual violence and to mobilise social change to alter the role of women in the region. In light of the multifaceted nature of video advocacy use in development, the study utilises a composite of three analysis techniques, employing the collection and critical examination of information both qualitative and quantitative in nature: A content analysis of the case study, examining the narrative and semiotic elements used by the film’s producers, was designed to complement interviews with stakeholders of the campaign. An international survey of women was conducted to shine light on how vulnerable groups across the world relate to the video in question and evaluate the effectiveness of video advocacy. The composite discussion reveals insights into video advocacy conception, strategy, and implementation, with particular emphasis on stakeholder mapping, while underscoring the potential for trade-offs and knock-on effects among stakeholder groups. The case study also provides a theoretical and practical basis for similar communication for development campaigns.

Role of community radio for peace and democracy Focus on Kenya
By: Maskazu Shibata

Educommunication + Community Media as a Development
By: Cristina Fernandes de Souza

Interreligious Communication in Sandzak
By: Nika Sturm
Abstract: This thesis is a case study of interreligious communication between Muslims and Orthodox Christians in the border municipalities between Serbia and Montenegro (Sandzak). A mixed, quantitative and qualitative approach was taken to study interreligious relations, among ordinary people and religious leaders. Through a combination of online questionnaires and face-to-face structured interviews, the study covers both groups’ perspectives on interfaith interactions, views and opinions. The findings showed support for the hypothesis, that the lack of knowledge about other religious affiliation results in prejudices and potential conflicts.

Challenges of expatriates at working environment in Norway
By: Kristina Vaceisvili



(23 Works)

An investigation intor rural communities reluctance to contribute towards the construction and sustainability of water facilities in Mphika district, Zambia.
By Goodfellow Mphande

An Analysis of the Media Representations of Chevron in the Ecuador Dispute
By Aloysius Gng

Smart Development. Intelligent Solutions for Challenging Development Problems
By Oscar Pärlbäck

The Present absence – about immigrant women and their representations, relations and roldes in the Swedish television news
By Hanna Hanski Grünewald

Climate Change Communications. Analyzing the Kenyan Climate Change Response Strategy
By Cecilia Schubert

The White Saviour and the International Volunteer
By Kate Rose

The business of lighting the poor. How the Lighting Africa program revisits market-led development
By Bénédicte Walter

Patrimonito: a visual storytelling of World Heritage from and for children
By Maurizio Rontani

Abstract: This is a brief research investigating issues such as world heritage and sustainable development in their existing links with youth and local communities, tourism and identity. Some heritage related narratives created by youngsters worldwide are considered. Connections among education, participation and heritage preservation, in the framework of a communication for development perspective, are investigated. Specifically, winning storyboards of a UNESCO Patrimonito competition are analyzed. The analysis on the collected media texts was conducted using a qualitative approach, including semiotics and visual methods. The findings emerged from the study made clearer the researched topic and allowed to formulate some final recommendations for further studies on the subject.

Media Development in Democratic Transitory Cambodia
By Casey McCarthy

Abstract: This thesis explores the development of the media in transitional democratic Cambodia. It looks at how the media landscape has changed over the last 20 years (what has been the successes and failures and what are the ongoing challenges); the roles of the various stakeholders critical to the development of the media (government, media themselves and development partners); and it assesses five areas critical to the establishment of an independent and sustainable media: the space for free expression, media professionalism, plurality, business management and supporting institutions. In doing so, the link between a public sphere and good governance is emphasised, the important role of the media in state reconstruction reinforced, and the western neoliberal agenda critically explored with a view to how it may be influencing current-day Cambodian political ideology and development.

ICT4D in GHANA. The Role of conferencing projects for cultural exchange and development
By Patrik Jonasson & Jake Hunter

We studied a live video conferencing project based in Ghana, because we wanted to determine whether this is one area where Information Communication Technology (ICT) can have an impact on communication for development. We also wanted to better understand whether live video conferencing is a viable way to go forward with Information Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) and, if so, what benefits it has to offer. To complement the study, we also looked at two other NGOs which are also using similar technology and have a purpose similar to the WPD live video-conference program, which is to create a space for knowledge and cultural exchange with the help of ICT. The additional programs will add a complementary comparative dimension to the analysis of the case study of WPD. It is important to have these two projects in mind since they use two vastly different methods and can provide a reflective understanding on how WPD can move forward as they are in a transitional phase and are currently exploring different ways to develop the project, mainly involving changes in management structure and technology. We studied the WPD project with the complementary information from the other two projects from an academic perspective to document and analyze the outcomes in order to determine which good practices are available when undertaking similar initiatives. From a theoretical perspective, we analyze the projects using research related to participatory communication, the public sphere, and the digital divide. From a practical perspective, we again examine issues related to the digital divide and the growing influence of communications technologies companies due to public-private partnerships.

Development Communication in Agriculture. A Retrospective Study of Motramed (in English: Mediated Partnership Model) Program for Arabica Coffee Farmers in Bondowoso, Indonesia
By Lisa Virgiano

Abstract: Coffee is an important commodity being traded daily on major commodity trade exchanges in London and New York. Meanwhile, in emerging markets like Brazil, Vietnam, and Colombia, coffee is a major source of revenue, with exports of coffee accounting for, in some cases, over 80% of foreign exchange earnings . As the fourth largest exporter of coffee beans in the world, Indonesia holds a strong opportunity to be a prominent coffee player in the world, not only by exporting raw material to developed countries but also by performing solemn roles in coffee global marketing strategies. Sadly, from preliminary research that I conducted before, I found out that the knowledge level of most Indonesian coffee farmers, particularly in coffee processing techniques, is relatively beyond par. How can Indonesia become a respected global player in coffee industry if the farmers do not simply know how to roast and grind their coffee? Coffee does not only affect world economy. In fact, it touches social cultural aspect in globalization, diffusion of innovations and technology, agricultural sustainability, and human empowerment among coffee farmers. Based on those above notions, I decided to commence on a particular study of a Motramed (Mediated Partnership Model) program, designed and implemented by ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee and Cacao Research Institute), to specialty coffee farmers in Bondowoso, East Java, Indonesia. Over several weeks that I spent in Jember, in ICCRI headquarter, I met directly with ICCRI researchers who are in charge for Motramed development program under Dr. Surip Mawardi’s supervision, respective Motramed farmers in Bondowoso, East Java and Motramed’s social actors. We engaged in an intense dialogue and qualitative interviews regarding Motramed program and its implications towards social, economy, and behavioral change. The study result was tremendously proliferated by myself observation of exploratory study which through that process, I found significant relations between ground theories of development and their field practice.

Social Media and Democracy: Facebook as a Tool for Democracy Establishment in Egypt
By Sergiy Prokhorow

Abstract: This study examines the role of social media in democracy establishment and promotion. As social media gets more and more popular and well-developed it gives ordinary people an opportunity to share information quickly. Facebook and Egypt’s revolution were chosen as a case study to illustrate the issue. The aim of the thesis is to analyse the role of Facebook in the political development, namely in the promotion and establishment of democracy. The following questions were posed: Whether Facebook can be more liberal and control free than traditional media? Whether Facebook can be constructive and uniting media? Whether Facebook can be regarded as a public sphere? The theoretical framework assumes that social media being more mobile, easily accessible and less controllable than traditional media may be regarded as a public sphere and consequently facilitate democratic development in a country. The study is conducted with a case study method and quantitative research method. The results show that Facebook during 2011 revolution in Egypt proved to be mobile, easily accessible, uniting and non controllable media enabling the citizens to share their opinion free and facilitating overthrowing the President and consequently the authoritarian regime led by him. This confirms the theory.

Beyond the Cultural Horizon – A study on Transnationalism, Cultural Citizenship, and Media
By Maria Erliza Lopez Pedersen

In many cases, the need to survive has been the reason for many individuals to leave their country and to start anew in a foreign land. Indeed, migration has played its role as one of the solutions to struggle against poverty among many migrants. Nevertheless, migration can also be an excellent way to improve or develop one’s linguistic, professional and cultural competencies. And one way of doing this is to be part of the au pair cultural exchange program. The interest to be an au pair as well as the interest to have an au pair has been the subject of colorful debates in Denmark, and pushing politicians to make an action due to reports of abuse by many host families. Where the au pair program will end up is still a question hanging up in the air. This study is about the journey of many young and educated Filipino migrants who have decided to embark on the au pair expedition. The theme is anchored on deprofessionalization and deskilling. Transnationalism, civic culture and cultural citizenship, and media are the central theories of the study. Feedback from the participants indicates that there is a need to shift the discussion and focus. It is also important that the au pairs’ knowledge and skills are recognized. The study recommends further research on how participatory communication can be utilized or applied to engage all the stakeholders: au pairs, host family, social organizations, sending and receiving countries, and mass media, in finding long term solutions. The ‘cultural exchange or cheap labor’ argument must not be ignored; however, debates should not be limited to this alone. Most of the au pairs are educated. Recognition of such qualifications must be done to create a new arena for discussions. Oftentimes, many au pairs themselves do not see this side of their background as something valuable. From a communication for development perspective, behaviour change- the au pairs should not see themselves as domestic workers, but as educated migrants, and this must be promoted and advocated, so that au pairs and members of the host society can acknowledge this unknown aspect of these unsung migrants. They are education migrants; it is only right and logical that the au pairs are supported to enhance their qualifications. Deprofessionalization and deskilling must be avoided.

The Anarchist Occupy Meme
By Valeriya Pehnke

A Discourse Analysis of the Media Representation of Social Media for Social Change – The Case of Egyptian Revolution and Political Change
By Minavera Bardici

Recent years were marked by a major transformation in human and social communication, owing to the advances in ICT and thus social media technologies. Social media have introduced new communication practices, provided newfound interaction patterns, created new forms of expressions, stimulated a wide civic participation, and so forth. They are rapidly evolving and their significance is increasing while their role is changing in social and political processes. Moreover, they are increasingly becoming an instrumental approach to, and power for, social change due to their potential in bringing new dynamics to its underlying processes such as public mobilization. Indeed, more recently, they played an important role in what has come to be known as the Arab Spring. Particularly, in the recent Egyptian revolt, social media, such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, have been transformed into effective means to fuel revolt and bring about political transformation. This marked a victory for social media and corroborates that they are an enduring resource for the successful mobilization of bottom-up, grassroots movements and leaderless collective actions. This, in turn, has stimulated discussions about their impact on political change, giving rise to a new discourse, what might be identified as ‘social media for social change’. This discourse is gaining an increased attention in the media and the academia: many journalists and authors talk and write about it. Particularly, research and publications by journalists emphasize the fundamental role the online media play in the reproduction of the role of social media in the Egyptian revolution and political change. The aim of this study is to establish, by means of a discourse analysis, how and with what purpose in mind, the online media report on – represent – the relationship between social media and the Egyptian uprising and political transformation, a social relationship that seems to be overstated and constructed in various ways by different journalists. This critical reading reveals what is undervalued, overvalued and excluded, as well as the intersection between the media discourse, subjects and ideology. To achieve this aim, the discourse analysis approach was used to examine the set of selected media texts. The media representation is deterministic as to the role of social media in the Egyptian revolution and political transformation, i.e. it exaggeratedly depicts the power of social media by describing the Egyptian revolution as a Facebook revolution. It also tends to be rhetorical and exclusionary. The event of the revolution and the reality of political change in Egypt are far more complicated than how it is reconstructed by most journalists. Further, it plays a role in constructing a positive image of different corporate players, namely Facebook, Twitter and media companies, as well as in constituting their identities. A great highlight is given to represent these actors. In addition, the media representation does ideological work. It sustains and serves corporate power as well as advances ideological claims. This discursive research enhances the current understanding of the phenomenon of social media in relation to revolution and political change, although the findings may not be generalizable.

A Critical Reading of the Scholarly and ICT Industry’s Construction of Ambient Intelligence for Societal Transformation of Europe
By Simon Elias

Abstract: Ambient Intelligence (AmI) refers to a vision of the information society where everyday human environments will be permeated by intelligent technology: people will be surrounded and accompanied by intelligent interfaces supported by computing and wireless networking technology that is ubiquitous, embedded in virtually all kinds of everyday objects. These computationally augmented, smart environments – composed of a myriad of invisible, distributed, networked, connected, interactive, and always-on computing devices – are aware of human context; sensitive to people’s needs; adaptive to, and anticipatory of, their behavior; personalized to their requirements; and responsive to their emotion and presence, thereby intelligently supporting their daily and social lives by providing limitless services in a seamless and unobtrusive way. The vision of AmI assumes a paradigmatic shift in both computing and society – far-reaching societal implications. The challenge lies in developing AmI forms that acclimatise to societal change and the diversity of European socio-cultural life. Indeed, one of the most fundamental views in the prevailing AmI vision is a radical and technology-driven change to social environments and people’s lives. Research emphasizes the fundamental role the ISTAG, a group of scholars and ICT industry experts, plays in the reproduction of AmI as a positive force for societal change. Therefore, the objective of this study is to carry out a critical reading of the scholarly and ICT industry’s construction of AmI in relation to societal transformation. To achieve this objective, a discourse analytical approach was employed to examine the selected empirical material: three reports published by the ISTAG in 2001, 2003 and 2006. The approach consists of seven stages: (1) surface elements and organizational structure, (2) discursive constructions, (3) social actors, (4) language and rhetoric, (5) framing as power and operation, (6) positioning and legitimation, and (7) ideological viewpoints. The AmI discourse (vision) construction tends to be deterministic, i.e. it assumes that the ‘amization’ of society will lead to radical social transformations, and has an unsophisticated account of how social change occurs. It is also inclined to be rhetorical – it promises revolutionary social changes without really having a holistic strategy for achieving the goal. Moreover, topicalization is accomplished in correspondence with the preferred mental models and social representations. Furthermore, the discourse is exclusionary: many issues (pertaining to trust, social sustainability, human-centred design, healthcare, and community life) are left out with the intention to advance the idea of the eventual societal acceptance of AmI. It additionally plays a role in wider processes of legitimation of social agents and structures on the basis of normative and political reasons, and it offers different subject positions: between ISTAG and Europe and European citizens, and between citizens and ICT designers and producers. Likewise, it plays a major role in constructing the image of social actors – ISTAG, ICT industry, research community and EU – as well as in defining their relations and identities in ways that reallocate roles and reflect new attributes. A great highlight and space is awarded to represent these actors, and their views dominate the reports. They are the prime definer of the represented reality. As to ideological reproduction, the discourse perpetuates power relations, serves the interest of certain stakeholders in European society, and reconstructs ideological claims. This discursive endeavor provides a valuable reference for social researchers or scientists in related research communities. Until now, there has been, to the best of one’s knowledge, no comprehensive discursive research of AmI in relation to societal transformation, more specifically the potential of AmI in modernizing the European social model and in shaping Europe’s future.

Respect Bangu
How Can ICTs and New/Social Media Remedy the Problem of Vital Statistics Deficiencies in Ghana? (The Case of Ghana Birth and Deaths Registry Department). 

By Stephen Baidoo

Abstract: The two most important events in every man’s Earth life are birth and death. Each of these events happens once in a life time. Every individual comes into the world at a certain time on one particular day. In the same way, every person leaves this world on one particular day at a certain time. The interaction of these two important events define, to a large extent, the totality of global population at any given time period. Whether there is population boom/ explosion or collapse in the world as a whole depends on these two natural sources. Some demographers, however, classify migration (i.e. emigration and immigration or in-migration and out-migration) as part of the sources of population growth. Recording these events as and when they occur is not for fun or an end to itself, but rather as a means to an end. Population affects every aspect of human life, namely: economic, political, legal, social, cultural, environmental, health, etc. It is for these and other equally important reasons that people of vision such as John Graunt (1620-1674); Thomas Malthus (1766-1834); Sir James Steuart (1713-1780); William Godwin (1756-1836); and the like sought, in those early days, to give recognition to population issues. This establishes the fact that although the formal field of demography is a relatively recent innovation, people have long been concerned about the size and characteristics of their territorial populations for a very long time. In spite of its enormous importance, it appears that little time and resources are channeled into population management in contemporary times. In Ghana, as in many developing countries, very little attention has been given the field by successive governments. This low-profile attitude towards population issues has, over the years, adversely affected the country’s socio-economic and political progress. I may not be too wrong to postulate that true development has eluded most African countries and the developing world at large mainly because in all of these countries proper attention has not been given to population matters. Is it not true that lack of proper method and resources are the main causes of leaders’ seemingly care-free attitude towards population issues in these developing countries in the past? Even though it may seem that many waters have passed under the bridge and that, things seem to have fallen apart (Chinua Achibe) there is always a window of escape when all doors are closed. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are the new generation of windows and escape routes out of many hitherto insurmountable problems. Therefore, in this thesis, I would like to explore and examine how ICTs and the famous new/social media may help alleviate the problem of non-registration or inadequate registration of vital events in Ghana.

Vanessa Vertiz

Becky Grippin

ICTs and Anti-Corruption
By Jwani Jube

Community Radio in Chile
By Carolin Törnqvist

Nicholine Musi



(14 Works)

WikiLeaks CableGate and the Multi-Stakeholder Model of Internet Governance (English)
By Julia Velkova
Abstract: In the end of 2010, the release of U.S. secret diplomatic on the Internet by the non-profit organisation WikiLeaks got an instant global outreach through the Internet and primarily, through the Wikileaks website – The immediate reaction to this resulted in governmental pressure on global providers of Internet services to stop servicing the website, thus preventing the global public from accessing the materials. The project studies the discussion that has arisen in the context of these actions and examines the communication tactics used by civil society and governmental actors in this discussion in order to advance an ideology of the right to communicate, and civil society participation in forming and safeguarding Internet principles.

Documentary Photography as a Tool of Social Change: reading a shifting paradigm in the representation of HIV/AIDS in Gideon Mendel’s photography (English)
By Christine Nesbitt Hills
Abstract: Gideon Mendel’s ongoing photographic work documenting HIV/ AIDS, first started in 1993, has seen shifts not only in production but also in the author’s representation of his subjects. This paper looks at three texts of Mendel’s work, taken from three different stages of Mendel’s career and reads the shifting paradigm taking Mendel from photojournalist to activist armed with documentary photography as a tool of social change. This thesis explores how different positionings as an author and different representations of the subjects, living and dying, with HIV/AIDS influences meaning-making, and what that means for documentary photography as a tool of social change.

What do the videos of Thando Mama Communicate? – As a Black Contemporary Artist in South Africa (English)
By Bandile Gumbi
Abstract: This paper aims to discuss the video art work of Thando Mama as an example of a black South African video artist. It takes in mind the reality that video art in South Africa has high entrance barriers due to the technological knowledge resources needed to practice thus becomes an elite art. The paper also contextualises video art within its historical practice as an avant garde art as well as its social development usage. Mama’s videos are a tool to communicate identity issues as represented in contemporary art with a particular focus on the South African experience.

Does who we are count? A study of the role that a community’s culture can play in sustainable heritage tourism development (English)
By Sally Deffor
Abstract: Heritage tourism has taken deep roots over the last decade with several destination management areas effectively carving a niche for themselves as places that offer products that help people to relive history. For Ghana, with its various forts and castles spread along its coastline; inhabitants of such communities have taken it for granted that tourists visit.I realized that the rich history of the fort which goes to reinforce our colonial history which is of course, significant to the outside world is left largely untold. My motivation for embarking on this study stemmed from a fascination in knowing why tourists would choose to visit one particular site within the same geographical area. Does the lives and culture of the people there matter at all?

Mobile phones as tools for social change. A case study of mobile phone use and access amongst Tanzanian youth (English)
By Adela Rodrigo
Abstract: Access, use and ownership of mobile phones is increasing rapidly in Tanzania, as in the rest of Africa. It is estimated that a staggering 97% of the population are able to access a mobile phone, according to a study carried out by the Centre for Economic Policy Research and Vodafone. The growing number of people using mobile phones has led to optimism and speculation regarding its effect on economic and social development. Expectations from mobile phones are high and it has already been coined as Africa’s PC. Expectations are further fuelled by sensationalist headlines in the media such as, Mobile phones join war on African poverty, The mobile revolution sweeps across Africa or Cell phones the latest tool in Africa’s fight against HIV and is shaping the discourse on mobile phones for development (M4D).

Film for Change, Communication Rights and Social Change in Tanzania (English)
By Søren Sønderstrup
Abstract: The thesis presents a view of film for change set against the manifold approaches, practices or ideologies influencing it, and analysis it as a tool for the self-representation, self-determination and mediation of marginalised people in the face of globalization and the democratization of communication. It seeks to find an answer to the question of how film for change works as a method to empower the disadvantaged inhabitants of three villages in Tanzania, where fieldwork was carried out. The thesis tracks down core parameters that connect the visual communication experience to the social reality and bear the potential to change it.

Rap: a tool for promoting change amongst youth in West Africa
By Myriam Horngren

Abstract: With 60% of the youth population under 25 (OECD 2007), West Africa possesses an abundance of potential, but also faces major challenges. It is currently unable to provide this youth with adequate opportunities or provide them with a voice that could influence their regions to their own advantage. This research explores an initiative developed with the aim of engaging the youth of West Africa in the promotion of children’s rights through the medium of Rap music. This initiative was launched in 2006 at the behest of AURA, a network of seventeen African Rap artists who have come together for the promotion of Hip Hop and to put their musical talents at the service of the development of Africa. AURA’s first project was an awareness raising campaign focusing on the promotion of children’s rights called Poto Poto which means mud in Wolof. My research focused on audience response to the Poto Poto cultural products through the participation of eight young people in a focus group organised in September 2010. Although based on a very small number of respondents, findings indicate interesting and useful trends with regards to Rap as an effective tool for social engagement.

Reflecting gender perspective in a development project: does culture matter
By Justina Antai

How has the International Tribunal for Climate Justice used communication to achieve their political aims
By Carys Hughes

The Tourist and the Tribe
By Linda Larsson

Political and Social Communication through graffiti/street art
By Dace Lavina

Communicating Social Change Through Traditional Media: An Example from the TV Programme Opinion.
By Edlira Gjoni

The Art of Poll Presentation
By Elin Scotford

Remembering Berlin
By Alexandra Malmqvist



(11 Works)

Analysis of media reporting and xenophobia violence among youth in South Africa (English)
By Gomo Tapiwa
Abstract: Through the use of content analysis, qualitative interviews and quantitative questionnaire survey, this study look at the role of media reporting on xenophobia among youth in South Africa. The study is based on Alexandra Township , a overcrowded and poor settlement in Johannesburg, South Africa. I choose Alexandra because it was the site of many attacks against African immigrants in April 2008. News content from 36 news media was examined on how their content might have contributed to the xenophobic attitudes.

Conservation 2.0: Leveraging social media for fundraising in Kenya – the case of WildlifeDirect (English)
By Elizabeth Mwambui
Abstract: Social media – Blogs, social networks (Facebook), micro-blogging (Twitter), You Tube, Flickr, Maps, and Mashups (combinations) – has changed the way we work and communicate. Social media are experiencing explosive growth rates and new prominence, not only in the lives of individuals but as tools in democratic processes and social change (Clark 2009, Gilmor 2004). My study’s principal purpose therefore is to explore the benefits of social media, while looking at its challenges. It places this effort within the context of conservation funding and improvements in the ICTs environment in Kenya.

Immigrant integration conflicts in Malmö through a development communication lens
By Lisa Mighton
Abstract: In the context of significant numbers of Muslim newcomers immigrating to Europe and perceptions of failed integration in Sweden, and in light of the urban conflict and increasing debates about integration as a one-way or two-way street, this paper sets out a “communication for development”-informed theoretical framework that focuses on the struggle for social cohesion and immigrant integration in Malmö, Sweden. The paper uses triangulation to view this challenging situation from various perspectives. Not only does this reveal that unemployment and lack of power have taken their toll on agency among migrants—particularly Iraqi men—but also that the strongest stories showing immigration as an asset—particularly Iraqi women—are not being told in the media.

Empowering marginalised Tanzanian youth – engaging communities. An experiment in participatory communication
By Rosalind Yarde

Young people, I believe, are the future of every society because they are the ones who will inherit our mistakes and who can potentially drive the change that we all aspire to, through their ideas, creativity and belief. Yet all too often they are marginalised, disregarded, even demonised. In Tanzania, 50% of the population is under the age of 18 years but they are rarely given a voice. This thesis reports on an experiment aimed at giving a voice to a group of marginalised young people in Northern Tanzania – former street children living in the town of Moshi, being cared for by an organisation called Mkombozi. The aim of the research was to investigate whether participatory radio converged with new ICTs, such as mobile telephony and the internet, could be effective communication tools to enable Mkombozi strengthen its youth empowerment and community engagement agenda and thereby help it move from being a ‘provider’ of services to a ‘facilitator’ that helps the community to bring sustainable change. The four young people who took part in the experiment were given free rein to make a radio programme about street children, backed by my technical expertise as a radio journalist. The programme was broadcast on a regional radio station and the audience was invited to take part in a live discussion using the phone, text messages and email. The results showed this to be an effective way of empowering the participants by giving them a voice to articulate their hopes and dreams, by inspiring them with self-confidence and self-respect and by allowing them to formulate their own demands for a better life. The programme they made provoked an overwhelming audience response, which connected the street children through dialogue with the community and engaged them in finding solutions to the issues themselves. Subsequently, there was a widespread consensus on the need for more participatory youth programming and investigation into how these communication tools might be developed further in order to find sustainable solutions at the grassroots level rather than through a ‘top-down’ approach.

Do You See What I See? A Participatory project in Tennant Creek, Australia
By Cassandra Doyle

At Risk? Using participatory photography to stimulate critical thinking. A collaborative project work in Australia and Tanzania.
By Karen Thulstrup

Design & Development. Does pedagogy make a difference in the designer’s response to the needs of a sustainable future in India
By Veronica Svensson

Social Media for Development. A study of UNESCO: What discourse for social media?
By Yara Al Ghafri

Using Personal Digital Assistants to Improve Healthcare Delivery in Uganda
By Kakaire Ayub Kirunda

Abstract: Effective Health Systems make service provision easy for health workers, especially if they have access to the latest guidelines in a dynamic profession where new technologies are ever emerging. However, available data indicates that the health system in Uganda is constrained and still using old technologies despite the availability of newer technologies. As a result, this study sought to investigate the adoptability, cost effectiveness, and sustainability with regard to Personal Digital Assistants. The study, which was cross sectional in nature, was carried out in Mbale District in Eastern Uganda between 2008 and 2010. In depth interviews were conducted with health workers and key informants. Also, published and unpublished literature about the Uganda Health Information Network was reviewed. The findings revealed that the use of Personal Digital Assistants also known as handheld computers can go a long way towards improving healthcare delivery in countryside health facilities. To health workers in remote places, the PDAs are a source of the latest clinical care guidelines for several diseases including HIV and AIDS as well as malaria. Health information systems have been improved and data collection and reporting have been eased by this technology. However, while evidence of viability of this technology exists, it still has challenges like power and delays in software updates among others.

Journalists in Conflict. Reporting in Honduras after the 2009 Coup d´etat.
By Maria Sköld

Tanzanian Youth Use of Online ICTs and Femina HIP
By Lynn O´Rourke



(15 Works)

Looking for Amina: An experience on Forum Theatre. Entertainment-Education and participatory approaches
By Jordi de Miguel Capell
Abstract: This Master in Communication for Development thesis is based on the experience of “Amina’s looking for a job”, a Forum Theatre play created in 2007 – whith the help of her sons and an NGO- by a Moroccan woman who is discriminated by different institutions in her will to find a decent job in Catalonia, Spain. Through this case study, the essay explores the contributions of participatory approaches to Education-Entertainment field from a communication for social change perspective.

Assessing the concept and practices of integration in Geneva: a Communication for Development Perspective
By Sarah Bel

What role can traditional healers play in HIV/AIDS dialogue in Nampula/Mozambique?
By Beate Rame Fülle

The impact of neo-liberalism on the development of community radio in democratic South Africa
By Martin J Jansen

The role of Community Media in enhancing communitiy participation in development projects: An assessment of ECONEWS Africa’s Mang’Elete Community Radio
By Linda Ogwell

Discontinuities in communication and conception of Hong Kong financial sector’s corporate responsibility
By Amy Cheung

Sugar Coating: The invocation of participatory language and manufacture of community support in the IFC-backed Ahafo Gold Mine project in Ghana
By Jason Rush

Invisible Theater in Mozambique – difficult to see?
By Oliver Ramme

Keeping the miracle alive . The role of the Freedom Park in reconciliation, nation building and national unity in South Africa
By Åsa Fridh

VIEWS IN PROGRESS, VIEWS IN PROCESS. A participatory video experience with young people in a space of borderlands
By Ana Zanotti

Content analysis on coverage of european union and european union member countries’ issues in the daily graphic of ghaha in the years 1998 and 2008
By Isabella Gyau

Abstract: The issue of the image of African countries in European media is an age-long one which has resurfaced in recent times. Eyebrows have been raised over the image of African countries in Europe and other Western Media which is always touted to be negative. The question about how the EU is reported in the African media has however been relegated to the background. This study therefore used content analysis to unearth how the EU and its member countries are reported in the African Media particularly in the Daily Graphic, a leading Daily Newspaper in Ghana in two separate years of 1998 and 2008 and whether what is reported reflects colonial ties between EU member countries and their former colonies in Africa. The study which used both quantitative and qualitative methods of research also sought to investigate the power relations between African media and their European counterpart, the sources of the stories were examined to find out whether they are stories written by European media or in-depth analysis of issues written by Ghanaian or African reporters. Special emphasis was placed on issues around trade and aid between Africa and the European Union which comes across as the key issues. The years 1998 and 2008 were selected because it has a ten year interval in which one can assess whether coverage of EU related issues in the paper has improved over the last ten years especially as the EU has grown in membership and scope, deepening its process of integration and acquiring new responsibilities in the world. Findings of the study indicated a strong tie between some EU member countries and their former colonies, (i.e United Kingdom and Ghana).The study also found out that The Daily Graphic simply borrows stories from EU sources and reproduce them with very little or no analysis, comments, or criticisms, of the issues raised that may have implications for the country or Africa’s growth in terms of aid and trade issues. This is a pointer to the fact that European media has been setting the agenda and the Daily Graphic simply follows. The study further revealed the unequal power relations between the EU and for that matter Africa which also reflects in media relations whereby as a result of poor salaries, logistical support and appropriate technology, newspapers in Africa, such as the Daily Graphic are unable to send reporters to the EU headquarters in Brussels to report issues from the African point of view and as such reproduce what has already been reported in the European media by European reporters and sent down through wire services. Again from the study, it is evident that the Daily Graphic does not report regularly on issues on EU- Africa trade and aid. In 1998, aid related issues involving the EU and Africa were only six percent while that of 2008 was 11 percent. Trade related issues involving the EU and Africa recorded nine percent in both years. Also reporters lack of interest in analysis of the issues in feature articles was reflected in 97 percent of news stories in 1998 as against three percent of feature articles in the same year while 2008 recorded a woefully two percent of feature articles as against a whopping 98 percent of news stories. One of the issues that emerged as a surprise was the fact that contrary to expectations, EU related stories not connected to Africa received more coverage than what connects Africa to Europe. This may be an indication that African media gate-keepers are not selecting stories based on the interest of the country or continent but rather still serving their colonial masters under a new colonial empire facilitated by the EU. Theories underpinning colonialism such as Edward Said’s Orientalism, modernization, media and society theories have helped to discuss some of the issues under focus.


Youth to Youth: A study of the hiv/aids communication strategy of act – a faith-based organisation in Côte d’Ivoire
By Stella Okoronkwo

Visual identification: Participatory photography with second-generation immigrant youth in Malmö
By Jason Hallman

Introduction and Integration of Migrants and the city of Malmö: A communication research study
By Jeanne Bowser

Our Petrified Gardens. Constructions of Identity on South African TV
By Susan Hayden



(6 works)

Do telecenters have a role narrowing the digital gap in the rural area in Honduras?
By Mirna Isabel Rivera Garcia
Abstract: The thesis assess the need of new telecenters and the maintenance of of existing telecenters in rural Honduras in order to understand the claim of the capacity of information and communication technologies for social development.

Small islands, small radio, small politics but big hope: Community radio in the Pacific (English)
By Hannah Harborow
Abstract: The thesis explores the effect of community radio in five Pacific island countries of Fiji, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Vanatu and the Solomon Islands. The these address the role that community radio can play in empowering local communities to affect social change at the structural level.

On your mark, get set, development: A look at the connection between sport and development By Anna Rice
Abstract: The thesis investigates how sports and development are connected and communicated, and how sport affects social change at the individual, community and global levels. Providing an overview of sociological and historical contribution of sport to development and social change, the thesis also delves into specific sports and development projects, namely, ‘Right to Play, the largest sport and development organisation in the world and ‘Bench to Pitch’ a community-based organization operting in Denmark.

Intercultural communication for development
By Keisuke Taketani
Abstract: The thesis is an exploratory study of intercultural sensitivity of the United Nations Volunteer Programme in a multicultural work environment. Using the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity as framework, the thesis reports on a qualitative survey conducted on 48 United Nations volunteers from 26 countries, serving in 24 countries.

ICT4D: What role can telecentres play in Zambia?
By Stanslous Chewe
Abstract: Using the case study of the University of Zambia Telecentre project, the thesis assesses the effect of ICTs amongst Zambians.

Eco-tourism as development project
By Anna Johnson Taketani
Abstract: Based on Paolo Mefalpulos’s theories of communication as a process to facilitate dialogue and on Silvio Waisbord’s ideas on communication for development, the thesis analyses the EU funded ‘Eco-tourism development programme’ to assess how communication and participation can strengthen long-term project sustainability.



(18 works)

Performing arts for HIV/ AIDS communication: Some strengths and weaknesses
By Frederick Mugira
Abstract: Using the case study of the DreamAidE organization of KwaZulu Natal province of South Africa, an organisation employing participatory drama and interactive education to spread awareness of HIV/ AIDS in the country, the thesis explores the effectiveness of live drama as a communication tool for raising young people’s awareness regarding the epidemic. Among others, the thesis is based on drama theory, social learning theory and activation theory of information exposure.

The South African Labour History Project: The role of communicating past struggles in building new movements of resistance
By Sara Melendro
Abstract: The thesis is a comment on the role of the project mentioned in the thesis title. A collaboration of two South African organisations, the Khanya College in Johannesburg and the Labour Research Service in Cape Town, the aim of the South African Labour History Project (SALHP) was to recover stories of those from the labour movement who fought to overthrow Apartheid. Employing current critiques of development that argue for an alternative way to bring about sustainable social change, the thesis debates on the need and motivation SAHLP and comments on the political context within which it was developed.

Changing spectatorships in communicating hair for development: Symbols and significations of identities, masculinities and maturations
By Andre R. Powe
Abstract: Addressing meta-narratives of misrepresentation and marginalization the thesis presents notions of hair as statements of the masculine identity.

What good can art do? Art and social change in Egypt
By Thorsten Ulbrich
Abstract: In conversations with creative communities in Egypt the thesis asks how art can create social change and how does art deal with social change.

Seeing beyond celebrity: How international development NGOs can use their famous supporters to help the poor get their voices heard
By Varihi Scott
Abstract: The thesis looks at the evolving relationship between NGOs and their high-profile supporters. The thesis offers the significance of this inquiry as being important as the last three decades have seen the forces of globalisation and celebrity culture converge to produce massive campaigns fronted by entertainers and aimed at tackling development issues.

A new dialogical space: Memorialisation, Freedom Park and the unfinished business of reconciliation in South Africa?
By Trevor Ralton Oosterwyk
Abstract: The thesis states that the creation of a memorial project provides occasion for the survivors of conflict to explore painful and contested memories of the past and also a way to communicate to the world how the society has dealt with the conflictual past. The thesis goes onto explore possibilities of creating a monument that would not only organise divergent voices, but also empower future generations. The context for the thesis is the Freedom Park in South Africa.

Hello? How may I help you? Call centre agents in Durban – victims or beneficiaries of Business Process Outsourcing
By Ulla Hauer
Abstract: The thesis aims to re-theorize identified processes of post-colonial transformation in the context of growing human experiences in the digital environment. It is a qualitative examination of a case study that employs hypertext. ‘Project 300′, an online initiative of an Iranian-born Canadian seeking to confront the representation of Persian culture in the 2007 Warner Brothers movie ’300′, is analysed with the contention that representation in the digital sphere provides for the ability of hypertext technologies to make explicit communication flows and thus enable social transformation.

ICTs in Education: SchoolNet in Ethiopia
By Mesai Mitiku
Abstract: The thesis argues that improved access to ICTs is required for the integration of students and teachers to knowledge based society. The focus is on the government supported, SchoolNet, education being one of the four critical areas outlines for transformation in Ethiopia.

Sun, Sea, Sex and Swedes. A study of campaigns to prevent sex tourism in Natal/Brazil and Stockholm/Sweden.
By Charlotte Pruth
Abstract: This thesis studies the work of two organisations working to prevent child sex tourism, Ecpat in Sweden and Resposta in Brazil. The thesis takes a close look at the Code of Conduct, a tool used by both organisations to make the tourism industry committed to the prevention of child sex tourism. Further analysis is made using advertisement material from Swedish travel agencies and Brazil tourism advertisements since the 1960s.

CBO Challenges and the Ikhala Model
By Ulrika Celin Wedin
Abstract: This thesis is a qualitative study of the challenges faced by CBOs (Community Based Organisations) working with multi-disciplinary HIV/ AIDS initiatives in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The case study is that of the participatory intermediate grant maker, Ikhala Trust, that employs participatory methods to better prepare CBOs to meet the requirements of their donors and to address problems within their community and their organisations.

Gender in the popular music of Kampala (Uganda)
By Evelyn Lutwarna-Rukundo
Abstract: This thesis analyses gender representations in popular songs in Kampala from 2003 – 2006. The sngs are sampled from the Pearl of Africa Music Awards, a local award sought after by Ugandan musicians. The examination of the lyrics is conducted through content analysis and hermeneutic methods. The thesis also traces gender positioning and apportioning of choices for economic and social development.

Beyond Binaries: social transformation in hypertext environments
By David Sol
Abstract: The thesis aims to re-theorize identified processes of post-colonial transformation in the context of growing human experiences in the digital environment. It is a qualitative examination of a case study that employs hypertext. ‘Project 300′, an online initiative of an Iranian-born Canadian seeking to confront the representation of Persian culture in the 2007 Warner Brothers movie ’300′, is analysed with the contention that representation in the digital sphere provides for the ability of hypertext technologies to make explicit communication flows and thus enable social transformation.

Unanswered questions and empty spaces: The challenge of communications history and memory in post-genocide Cambodia
By Niamh Hanafin
Abstract: The thesis explores the causes of the lack of knowledge among contemporary Cambodian youth about the Khmer Rouge regime. The thesis examines the potential role that radio can play in supporting and contextualising survivors’ testimonies and educating young people about their recent history by studying a phone-in radio series ‘Ka Pit (The Truth).

Glocal awareness in blogs: An explorative study of glocal awareness in blogs about the February 2007 flood in Jakarta, Indonesia
By Solveig-Karin Erdal
Abstract: The thesis studies glocal awareness in 27 blogs from around the world that mention the February 2007 flood in Jakarta, the hypothesis being that bloggers creating glocalization on the internet wll reflect on this aspect in the blogs. The qaualitative approach of the thesis is inspired by internet ethnography. Quantitative content analysis as well as qualitative text analysis is conducted on what comprises the local and global in both geographical and societal dimensions and discussed within the framework of theories of glocalization.

Why do they hate us? British Gypsies and the media
By John Thynne
Abstract: The thesis addresses the identity crisis of British Gypsies. Tracing their historical roots, the thesis presents political, mythical and moral identities of British Gypsies. Interview are conducted with British Gypsies in the media.

Visual voices: Rewriting history in pubic art
By Eva Fognell
Abstract: The thesis assesses the role that monuments, memorials and public art can play in the processes of intercultural communication and in presenting new historical narratives. The thesis presents examples of public art in the United States as a successful means for previously silent voices and narratives to be heard and for facilitating a diverse interpretation of history.

Cinema numérique ambulant: A case study of medium term impact on the audience in niger, West Africa
By Dominique Thaly
Abstract: The thesis assesses the impact of the Cinema numerique ambulant (CAN), a French project in West Africa with the objective of using light technology to reach out to remote rural communities in Africa. Borrowing from audience theory, media effect theory, African film theory and communication for development theory, the thesis attempts to devise a theoretical framework for the analysis of medium term impact of mobile cinema.

Diffusion of innovations: Reforestation in Haiti
By Raffaella Bellanca
Abstract: The thesis analyses the communication dynamics of a reforestation campaign in Haiti operated by the NGO AMURT. Assuming that the idea of planting trees rather then cutting them can be seen as an innovation, the thesis adopted the findings of “Diffusion of Innovation” research as a theoretical framework. The field work is used to critically assess some of the diffusion model’s findings, especially concerning the characterization of early adopters which are perceived as pro-innovation biased. An analysis of the NGO communication strategy according to diffusion of innovation parameters revealed several positive points, such as the use of homophile change agents, the adaptation of messages to the audience and the characterization of the meaning of the innovation from a receiver’s perspective.



(9 works)

Using radio for advocacy and communication of issues affecting farm communities in Zimbabwe
By Clever Maputseni
Abstract: The thesis looks at the extent to which radio remains useful in communication and advocacy for the development of marginalized communities, specifically the farm communities in Zimbabwe. The research is based on a case study of a national radio programme sponsored by an NGO. It contributes to literature that dwells on alternating episodes of faith and doubt in the power of the media in development.

Cycle of change: Life and development in Beijing
By Enno Ladwig
Abstract: The thesis investigates the impact of urban development n Beijing. The written thesis is supplemented with a 27 minute documentary made by the author.

Exploring new modalities: Experiences with information and communication technology interventions in the Asia-Pacific region
By Michael Dougherty
Abstract: The thesis project is an outcome of the author’s involvement in a United National Development Programme (UNDP) Asia -Pacific Development Information Programme (APDIP) project to develop a review and analysis of 56 Pan-Asia ICT R&D Grants Programme between 2002 and 2005. The product of the UNDP-APDIP project is a book with the purpose for providing an overview of projects for internal review and for sharing project results among grant recipients, the development community and other interested parties. The thesis reviews and analyses the research process behind the making of the book.

Does Ejeda need its radio or how can a small radio unit deal with the resources from NGOs to transmit messages about health according to the reality in the region?
By Suzanna Johansson
Abstract: The thesis evaluates a radio project supported by the Andrew Lees Trust (ALT) and UNICEF in southern Madagascar. Besides carrying out an impact analysis of the radio station launched in collaboration with the local hospital, Ejeda, to promote improved health practices in the Mahafaly region, the thesis also examines how cultural context is accounted for as a means of communication in the radio project.

Selling the backstage: Heritage and enterprise in community based tourism, The the case of Kyrgyzstan (English)
By Johanna Stenersen
Abstract: The thesis looks at the interplay between enterprise and heritage in community based tourism in Kyrgyzstan. It addresses the effect that this interplay has in the creation of a tourist destination in a context of development and socio-cultural transition.

Information, Knowledge and Development: the case of Nakaseke Multipurpose Telecentre in Uganda
By Tapiwa C. Kamuruko
Abstract: Taking its point of departure in the unsustainable pilot initiatives of the telcentre model in developing countries, the thesis investigates the possibility of community assisted functioning of a Ugandan telecentre in the challenging aftermath of donor withdrawal.

Responding to the global economy through knowledge networks: A case study of internet-based international study circle programmes as a potential effective model in development communication and education
By Morten Jest
Abstract: Taking its departure point in the assumption that workers’ education is n important tool in developing critical awareness of globalization and the alternatives to it, the thesis looks at the education concept of the International Study Circle (ISC) project, a pilot programme to evaluate the feasibility of the international study circle model initiated by IFWEA and its European regional body, Euro-WEA in 1997.

We all for Castelli: An experience of communication networking
By Yanina Grisel Ibarra
Abstract: The thesis is an attempt to understand the communication processes developed by the Red Solidaria (RS), an Argentine solidarity network that started a national solidarity collection made popular via the country’s national media as ‘We all for Castelli’. RS’s purpose was to collect basic sanitary resources to aid Castelli, a town suffering from severe drought. Alongside the RS campaign, Argentines organised their own capaigns to coordinate aid for Castelli. The thesis borrows from Manuel Castells’ presentation of a mechanism in which two or more networks interlace to share resources towards a common goal to describe the parallel nodes of cooperative aid that emerged in Argentina towars the end of 2005.

HIV/AIDS e-resources for media: An analysis of needs and expectations within media in Uganda and Serbia
By Jackie Davies
Abstract: Stating knowledge, accuracy and communication skills as the main requirements for effective HIV/ AIDS communication for all media around the world, the thesis addresses the specific challenges of media in transitional and developing countries where fewer resources are available for production and information sharing.



(15 works)

The impact of media laws on press freedom in Zimbabwe: Perspectives, controversies, and reality
By Mkuleko Hikwa
Abstract: The thesis seeks to assess whether Zimbabwean legislative control over the operations of the media suppresses press freedom or has a positive effect on media regulation. The thesis evaluates the impact of media law and policy on freedom of press and expression in Zimbabwe from 2000 to 2005.

Youth to youth: A study of the AIDS communication strategy of PEMA/ ACT in Cote d’Ivoire
By Stella C. Okoronkwo
Abstract: The thesis studies the communication strategy of PEMA or ACT (African Christian Television), a faith based organisation that emerged in the late 1990s and uses entertainment education to educate awareness about social ills in Africa. Its programmes are broadcast in Cote d-Ivoire and oter Francophone countries. The thesis focusses on the HIV/ AIDS communication programmes of the organisation.

eDiplomacy for Development: A study of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ web communication
By Alma Sokolovic-Rasmussen
Abstract: Recovering from a decade long period of war, the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina is now set for the country’s economic recovery. The Government’s representative abroad, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA), promotes the country’s political economic and cultural affairs and is the primary official contact for administrative services to the Bosnian diaspora. The study examines the use of the Internet as a communication and work tool by MoFA and takes up the Norwegian experience as a case study of best practices.

Transforming television news in a post-conflict environment: The case of ERNO, a regional news exchange window for the Balkans and south east Europe
By Carita Pettersson
Abstract: ERNO, a regional news and feature service within the frameworks of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and the Eurovision News Exchange (EVN), was established with the aim of supporting the development of pluralistic media, allowing for diverse views and opinions in post- conflict zones. The thesis assesses the validity of the project ERNO from a reconciliation point of view with a special focus on Serbia.

Walking the tightrope – can storysharing play a part in reconciliation?
By Sara Johansson
Abstract: The thesis takes Trudy Grovier’s writings on reconciliation as a starting point and borrows from contact theory and narrative thinking to dwell on whether sharing of personal experiences with people from the other side of a conflict contributes to reconciliation. Looking specifically at the possibilities of talking and the obstacles of a post conflict society, the thesis examines the reconciliatory work of four multinational women’s organisation in Bosnia-Hercegovina.

School libraries in a democratic South Africa: Curriculum support, information literacy, policy development
By Maud Hell
Abstract: The thesis assesses the impact of the south African national policy, introduced in 1997 to stress the importance of library service to facilitate learners with resource material. The challenge of the national policy to meet the outcomes of new Curriculum 2005 is assessed by investigations in two school libraries and two provinces.

Home alone: Participatory action project with children in Léon, Nicaragua
By Lena Wall
Abstract: Reviewing the ongoing project Home Alone and existing literature on children’s participation to reflect, the thesis is a reflection on the author’s own experiences of working with children in the Home Alone project.

What does art matter? – contemporary art and development in Sarajevo 1996-2005
By Susan Kennard
Abstract: The thesis explores the question of the importance of art in society with the intent of investigating whether and how contemporary art practice can offer new learnings and innovations to development theory. Adopting a cross disciplinary approach, the thesis borrows the conceptual tool of the ‘boundary object’, formulated by Susan Leigh Star and Geoffrey C. Bowker, to position civil society as a common identifier across both settings and is based on a field study that investigates whether or not post-war contemporary art practice in Sarajevo engages with civil society.

The Weeping Jade Dragon Snow mountain: Educational radio soap operas for HIV/AIDS prevention in Yunnan, China
By Claudia Blume
Abstract: Taking the case study of two educational radio soap operas for HIV/ AIDS prevention targeting ethnic minorities in Yunnan province, China, the thesis discusses the effective HIV/AIDS communication and the production process of entertainment-education projects. The aim of the thesis is to address production challenges entertainment-education projects in the endeavour to empower audiences living at the periphery of the information society.

Who are we, the people? – A discourse analysis of the UN Millennium Report
By Jane Lykke Bœll
Abstract: Building its analytic strategy on the comments on discourse by Foucault, Laclau, Mouffe, and Fairclough, the thesis conducts a textual analysis on the UN Millennium Report, ‘We the People. The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century.’ The thesis is illustrated by a painting on canvas.

Showing ones picture of the world: Photographic workshops in Buenos Aires and influence on the participants
By Åsa Hedberg
Abstract: Interacting with groups of children and young people who are participating in photography workshops in Las Feas and Contraluz, two slum areas of Buenos Aires, the thesis investigates the participants’ belief in the influence of the workshop on their self-image, self-esteem and the picture of the neighbourhood. Interpreting findings from interviews, questionnaires and from picture analysis – the thesis employs Pierre Bourdieu’s theories of cultural and social capital, Jonas Stier’s and Mowena Griffiths’ theories of identity and the dialogical pedagogy of Paulo Friere.

Communication as a means to improve a development programme: Field study Topola, Serbia
By Ulla Engberg
Abstract: The thesis addresses issues and challenges in the communication between a development programme and a community by studying the communication strategy of The Topola Rural Development Programme (TRDP) by Sida in Topola, Serbia.

”How do we even know our elected leaders go to work?”: Freedom of information in Tanzania
By Karin Mossberg
Abstract: The thesis investigates freedom of information in Tanzania at the policy and practice level. The thesis looks into what the constitution of Tanzania has to say about freedom of information and how freedom of information works in practice when journalists investigate.

Indigenous, yes: Participatory documentary-making revisited (an Argentine case study)
By Florencia Enghel
Abstract: The thesis discusses the practices that lead to the production of two documentaries made by the author through the implementation of a participatory communication approach about and with indigenous communities located in the North region of Argentina between 1997 and 2003. The documentaries are: Ayvü-Porä/The beautiful words (1998), and Candabare/Late summer celebration (2001).



(13 works) From 2004 all works are in English!

Voices of South Africa – Internet-based education for communication and globalisation
By Louise Frykheden
Abstract: The thesis is an analysis of the complexities of virtual, intercultural learning environment. The author provides perspective on internet based education as a democratic right, globalization in internet education and gender issues in intercultural learning through interviews with South African students and facilitators in the Internet-based, higher education programme ICM (Intercontinental Master’s programme for adult learning and global change).

ICTs for the Poorest of the Rural Poor–Now and How?
By Sanjay Gupta
Abstract: Outlining the market and policy level factors that contributed to the exclusion of a large faction of the Indian rural population from the Information Revolution, the thesis enumerates possible fiscal, infrastructural and technological interventions to improve access to ICTs for the country’s rural poor.

Moving images and the making of meaning – about teachers, television and AIDS
By Åsa Tolgraven
Abstract: The thesis is a qualitative study on the effect of television programmes on HIV and AIDS issues in Botswana. In addition to a written paper, the final work comprises a short film that presents the discussions on the television series, ‘Talk Back’ by south African teachers.

Radio as a tool for development and empowerment – among the Maasai people in rural east Africa
By Martin Cederberg
Abstract: The thesis discusses the role of mass media in the empowerment of a community. Applying Servaes’ definition of community as a ‘community of interest rather than simply a geographically defined community, the thesis studies the impact of of mass communication among the Maasai people.

Writing Mapuche: The use of local functional literacy in intercultural education as communication for development
By Therese Raymond
Abstract: The thesis examines the social and functional aspects of literacy in the context of the creation of an empowering intercultural school. The thesis follows what is left of the cultural tradition of the Mapuche, an indigenous people of South America who were targets of discrimination by European settlers in the 16th century and who are presently respected for contributing to the country’s ethnic diversity.

Towards an Information Society in Nigeria: The legal and institutional framework
By Fabian U. Okoye
Abstract: Examining the policy level issues determining the creation of an information society in Nigeria, the thesis aims to make suggest appropriate frameworks for the development of the country’s Public Sector Information (PSI). The thesis is informed by the theoretical framework of Social Constructionism, which involves participants as active change agents rather than as passive beneficiaries.

Peace in focus: An exploratory study with the aim of encouraging a media intervention project in the Spanish Basque territory in northern Spain (English)
By Anna Wall
Abstract: Through interviews with local media professionals, academics and peace workers in the Spanish Basque region in northern Spain, the thesis examines and assesses the media’s role in the Basque conflict. Exploring the Basque media landscape through literature and internet review of media coverage as well as unstructured observations, the thesis aims to encourage media as a tool of peace building.

A spider in a development net: Community radio in participatory development
By Ann Jornéus Tenfält
Abstract: With the assumption that proximity is a positive factor for social cooperation, the thesis studies the effectiveness of community radio to mobilize and empower the local community. The thesis uses the case study of the Kagadi Kibaale Community Radio in Uganda and the Olkonerei Radio Service in Tanzania.

Digital communication for development in Nepal
By Gabriella Westberg
Abstract: The thesis presents Development Communication as a field that possesses an inherent symbolic power with the capacity to either empower or disempower its subjects. Interviews with radio listeners and facilitators, as an independent assessment assistant for a development communication project in Nepal, provided for the author’s starting point that the central concept of dialogue is ignored in participatory projects. Reflections post the assessment experience, has culminated in the thesis which borrows from French theoretician Pierre Bordieu’s notion of symbolic power.

Divided city: Information poverty in Nairobi ́s slums
By Rasna Warah
Abstract: The thesis highlights the divisive effects of ICT development initiatives in densely populated slums through an investigation into the mechanisms of access to media and information in the absence of ICTs in the slums of Nairobi. The thesis concludes with recommendations for improving ICT and media access and provides a report of best practices and lessons learned in other developing countries.

Does Africa need museums?
By Lena Millinger
Abstract: Questioning the relevance of museums as communicators of cultural heritage in Africa, the thesis highlights the skewed outcomes of local identity building through foreign funding. The dependence of Africa’s museums on tourism and foreign aid means that museum collections are invariably chosen from an outsider’s curious gaze of the Other. The thesis maps out development theories and compares them with the situation in Mali and Senegal to assess the priority of culture versus economy.

“Good things happen here as well” Arts activities for social transformation amongst children and adolescents – a case study in Argentina
By Kristina Rörström
Abstract: Argentina’s troubled history has contributed to the widening of financial and social distance amongst its people. In the last decade, efforts by UNESCO shows evidence that culture, including arts activities, can have a positive social impact. In an effort to investigate the participatory nature of active involvement in arts activities among children and youth, the thesis reports on the attitudes and experiences of young participants in the programs organised by Crear Vale la Pena, a non- governmental working on social inclusion in sub-urban Argentina since 1993.

Communications framework for HIV vaccine trials
By César Bazán
Abstract: The thesis analyses the experiences of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN), a large international network for HIV vaccine trials. The thesis collects responses by HVTN staff and community representatives from 21 research sites through a web-based survey conducted in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Using the data from the web survey, the thesis identifies critical themes in HIV vaccine trials conducted in Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, South America and the USA and makes recommendations for the communication effort of the trials.



(4 works)

Sex, AIDS and videotape
By Torja Ngenge
Abstract: The thesis explores how video is used to entertain, inform and educate youth in rural Mozambique about sexual health, HIV/ AIDS, teenage pregnancy and gender related issues. Observations of attitudes and reactions during video screenings of selected videos, focus group and individual interviews are used to inform on the impact of the videos on attitudes to sex and related health issues.

Media, democracy and conflict in the Manu River Union
By Linda Runesson
Abstract: Based on a minor field study conducted in the West African sub-region called Manu River Union, the thesis investigates the role of the media in times of conflict. The divisive history of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, members of the Manu River Union, puts significant political pressure on journalists working in the sub-region leading to wavering ethical standards, corruption, blackmail and other debilitating practices. The thesis offers suggestions to make the news media a positive factor in a conflict ridden society.

Assessing ICT Efforts in marginalized regions from a critical social viewpoint
By Manne Granqvist
Abstract: The thesis aims to understand the social dimensions and impact of ICTs in economically weak environments. The study has been conducted in the Dominican Republic in association with the NGO Funredes in connection with its Olistica (Observatory in Action of Social Impacts of ICTs in Latin America and the Caribbean) initiative.

Journalist education after Suharto
By Mikael Ringman
Abstract: The thesis addresses Indonesia’s nascent account of first time press freedom after the fall of the Suharto dictatorship. In field studies conducted at Bandung, Bengkulu and Jakarta, the thesis looks at the status of education and training of Indonesian media through three central concepts in development communication theory – free flow of information, development journalism and the right to communicate. In its concluding argument, the thesis calls for a new kind of development journalism.



(10 works)

The new Press Law in Indonesia (in English)
By Anneli Ström Leijel
Abstract: The thesis is a study of the content and implementation of Press Law number 40, passed in September 1999 a little more than a year after Suharto was forced to stepped down. The law is analysed from a political science perspective and theories on democracy, civil society and the media’s role in a democracy are used. United Nations article 19, which guarantees freedom of expression, is the basis for the content analysis of the new Indonesian Press Law. Interviews with 19 media persons in Jakarta, Indonesia are used to understand the law in daily practice.

Internet as a tool for communication – information and participation among tertiary students in Namibia (in English)
By Helen Belcastro
Abstract: The thesis investigates Namibian students’ use of the Internet as a tool for participation in the democratic process. The study consists of qualitative and personal interviews with representatives of local media, local and national ICT projects and with government officials in Windhoek, the capital of Namibia. The study has also served as an input for a communication strategy for SASU, a southern African students’ union.

Media against AIDS (in English)
By Kerstin Hansson Gossé
Abstract: The thesis presents linguistic taboo as one of the bigger obstacles for successful HIV- communication in Tanzania. The limited vocabulary for sexuality related topics, due to social taboo and paucity of sex related terms in official Swahili, means that mass media lags behind in its efforts to speak openly about sexuality. However, the thesis claims, the practice of youth magazine Femina to employ straight talk that is in touch with sexual slang used by Tanzanian youth, might result in the enrichment of the Swahili vocabulary thereby bringing a much needed impetus to sexual health communication.

Techno-fetishism or communication for development (in English)
By Gitte Jakobsen
Abstract: The thesis studies the potentials of Internet and e-mail communication for student organisations in southern Africa. It tries to find practical solutions for the use of new media for marginalised groups of society by focussing on the regional student organisation SASU (South African Students’ Organisation) as an example of student communication in the sub-region. The thesis has a practical and action oriented scope in that it is also an integral contribution to SASU’s communication strategy, which has the support of Danish development NGO Ibis.

Soul City: Ideological band-aids against HIV (in Swedish)
By Gustav Böklin
Abstract: The thesis addresses the cultural phenomena of the education-entertainment (EE) method of mass mediated health communication. The thesis makes a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of Soul City, a soap opera series that uses stories about people living in South Africa to educate about health issues. The series is produced by IHDC (Institute for Health and Development Communication) in the Republic of South Africa.

Media without a veil? Press freedom in Indonesia (in English)
By Michael Berwick
Abstract: This descriptive study is an attempt at comprehending the many imaginations of what constitutes a freedom of the press for Indonesian mainstream media in the wake of the authoritarian Suharto regime. Through interviews with Indonesian media, academics, staff of the NGO ISAI (Institute for the Study of Free Flow of Information) and a director of an international funding organisation, the thesis makes conclusions on confidence in press freedom in the speculated re-occurrence of government backed censorship of the media or threats from religious fundamentalists and party militias. Using the metaphor of the veil as a ‘thin filter’, the thesis contends to reveal nuances of whether Islamic values prevail over the notion of press freedom or whether it follows the model set by nations with a longer tradition of democratic rule.

Which future role for communication in Danish development aid? (in English)
By Kirstin Lund Larsen
Abstract: The thesis argues that the communication interventions of existing donor systems are challenged by current dominant paradigms of international development cooperation that encourage locally appropriate development. Through focus group and personal interviews with staff at the Danish government aid department Danida, the thesis finds that there is an awareness of this challenge among donor agencies. Employing the theoretical basis of participatory paradigms proposed by Servaes, Melkote and Srinivas, the thesis points to the need for structural and systemic changes within donor agencies to operationalise communication not only as a tool, but also as a purpose in itself.

AIDS communication through entertainment-education (in English)
By Annica Widmark
Abstract: The thesis uses Miguel Sabido’s theories of entertainment-education and theories of participatory communication/ development communication to analyse the message building process and audience perception of the AIDS communication film Amah dja-foule. The film under analysis is produced by project-Retro-CI in co-operation with PSI (Population Service International) in Ivory Coast as an IEC (Information, Education, Communication) tool and is used in the daily work at Clinique de Confiance in Abidjan, a clinic providing free care and counselling for commercial sex workers.

Children’s rights in practice (in English)
By Rosita Ericsson
Abstract: The thesis compares findings from a study of children’s participation in the West African radio campaign, ”I’m a child but I have my rights too!”, to Roger Harts’ model for children’s participation called ‘Ladder of Participation’. The thesis aims to arrive at an understanding of the scope, purpose, attitudes and difficulties around children participating as actors for change.

Radio as means to support agricultural development
By Björn Ericsson
Abstract: The thesis claims that decentralised production of internationally funded and nationally supported radio programmes on sustainable agriculture has helped farmers in Zambia reorganize themselves around locally appropriate farming methods. The LM&CF (Land Management and Conservation Farming) Project, financed by Sida and supported by MAFF (Ministry of agriculture, Food and Fisheries), is an effort to educate local agricultural advisors appointed by the ministry about simple agricultural methods. As a complement to this educational initiative the project supports radio programmes produced by the NAIS (National Agricultural Information Service), whose decentralised organisational structure has resulted in radio farmer forums discussing new methods of farming thereby lowering dependency on the agricultural advisors of the ministry.



(7 works)

From opposition to a monthly magazine – A new role for Indonesian press (in Swedish)
By Maria Nilsson
Abstract: The newspaper explosion after the decline of the Suharto regime in 1998 includes the establishment of the print publication Pantau. Started by a group of journalists who were critical of the Suharto regime, the first issue of Pantau was a newsletter that put under scrutiny the role of media during the election campaigns of 1999. By investigating the models used by Pantau to decide upon form and following the nature of its regional and national coverage, the thesis explores the role media plays in a democratisation process.

Exporting public service (in Swedish)
By Gunilla Kracht
Abstract: In its present context of strife hit economy, political turmoil and ethnic rivalry, the Indonesian state owned radio company, Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) aims for status as an independent public service company. In answer to RRI’s call, Swedish Radio’s Media Development office takes up the task of attempting to convey the idea of public service to staff at RRI. The thesis follows one of these trainings and asks how a concept like public service moves from one context to another.

Salvaging Article 19: A tightrope act for media aid to Southeast Asia (in English)
By Henrik Harr
Abstract: The thesis dwells on complex issues of press freedom through reflections on the give and take between the normative rights of freedom of speech and the subjective practice of press freedom amongst media aid workers in Southeast Asia.

New role for the press in Indonesia (in English)
By Ingela Rutberg
Abstract: A thesis is a study of the Indonesian local language magazine, Pantau, established post the authoritarian Suharto regime with the purpose of elevating the standards of journalism and institutionalising press freedom. The thesis aims to understand the role of the media in a democratisation process. It takes its theoretical starting point in Jan Servaes’ theory of participation and Joseph Manzella’s ideas of universal principals in the role of a journalist.

Digital distance education – an easy option for developing countries or colonialism in a new millennium? (in Swedish)
By Maud Larsson
Abstract: The thesis is a report on opportunities and challenges of digital distance education in developing countries. The thesis is based on an internet training programme for women journalists in Africa conducted by AWMC (African Women Media Center). Six journalists, representing the Kenyan media, share their experiences and provide their opinion on the training programme and its role in their life and career.

The role of media for peace and democracy in Somaliland (in Swedish)
By Marianne Hedenbro
Abstract: The thesis aims to understand the role of the media in the Somali peace process starting from its declaration of independence in 1991. Interviews conducted with journalists in Hargeisa, capital of Somaliland, reveal that while traditional bearers of news, like poets, are highly regarded in Somali society for their significant role in informing the public regarding peace proceedings, journalists have frequently been jailed for publishing material critiquing the government.

An imagined community – Britons in Lanzarote
By Louise Sverud
Abstract: Illustrating with the example of the British diaspora in Lanzarote, an island in the Spanish province of the Canaries, the thesis reflects on the interconnectedness of national identity and community building in the context of transnational mobility. The thesis investigates the origins of the British population in Lanzarote, compares them with their counterparts in Great Britain, and inquires into the role of printed media as well as the role of cultural processes and activities – to reflect on identity, community and culture in a globalised world.