One day, no one knew him. The next, everyone did. That is what happened in Myanmar (colloquially known as Burma) when all of a sudden people were talking about Donald Trump due to the internet. The World Bank estimates, that less than 1% of the Burmese population had internet access until 2014. Today, approximately 20% of Myanmar is online. What happens when everybody is new to the internet and joining Facebook at once?
Before I started writing this article, I finished reading the work of Marxist feminist and theorist Silvia Federici’s Caliban and the Witch: Women, the Body and Primitive Accumulation (2004). Inspired by Shakespeare´s The Tempest, it is a history of the body in the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Federici shows how the battle against the rebel body and the conflict between body and mind are essential conditions for the development of labor power and self-ownership, two central principles of modern social organization.
My last post looked at how Cambodia’s authoritarian regime has sought to silence dissenting voices. This one looks at what one group of activists have done to make their voices heard despite the political crackdown.
When Cambodian authorities began closing down the public space with threats, surveillance, and harassment, harassment last year they also muzzled many digitally connected activists.
But some of the scrappiest activist groups became even more active. One of them stands out for their use of new media and particularly video advocacy.
នៅក្នុងវីដេអូមួយនេះយេីងនឹងលាតត្រដាងថា ខ្សាច់ដែលនាំចេញទៅប្រទេសតៃវាន់បានបាត់ស្ទេីរតែទាំងស្រុងហេីយក៏មិនខុសពីករណីដែលបាត់ខ្សាច់ជាង៧០០លានដុល្លាកាលពីមុនផងដែរ។ តេីមន្រ្តីពុករលួយដែលពាក់ព័ន្ធរឿងនេះគួរតែចាត់ទុកថាជាជនក្បត់ជាតិដែរឬទេ? សូមបងប្អូនជួយពិចារណា។In this latest video, we are exposing the fact that most of the sand exports to Taiwan have gone ‘missing’ from government records. This is not unlike the issue of 700 million dollars’ worth of sand that also went ‘missing’ a few months back. Can those corrupt officials involved in this scam be considered traitors? Watch and decide by yourself.
Publicerat av Mother Nature Cambodia Måndag 11 september 2017
The American online social media company Facebook has been a blessing for human rights – most apparently for freedom of speech. Social media can increase the effectiveness of public assemblies, demonstrations or non-mainstream political movements. However, there exist also dark sides to social media.
Facebook, with more than 2.2 billion active users, has had a bad few weeks – or even years. Mark Elliot Zuckerberg, the co-founder, and leader of Facebook had to apologize for failing to protect the personal data of millions of users. On the strength of this, millions of users deleted their accounts in disgust.
Humor as a political weapon – The phenomenon of memes
The term “meme” was introduced by biologist Richard Dawkins in his book The Selfish Gene (1976). As part of his larger effort to apply evolutionary theory to cultural change, Dawkins defined memes as small cultural units of transmission, analogous to genes, that spread from person to person by copying or imitation.
Internet memes can be treated as (post)modern folklore, in which shared norms and values are constructed through cultural artifacts such as photoshopped images or urban legends. Lynne S. McNeill
According to Shifman, what Internet users seemed to have grasped—and Richard Dawkins couldn’t have imagined back in 1976—is that the meme is the best concept to encapsulate some of the most fundamental aspects of the Internet. Three main attributes ascribed to memes are particularly relevant to the analysis of contemporary digital culture:
Social media use has transformed the way activists work and can be considered an integral part of the networked public sphere (Castells 2012; Tufekci 2017). New media and ICTs are central to the way activists raise awareness, challenge governments and mobilise supporters, although the actual impact of digital media may be overstated (Guo & Saxton 2013; Denskus & Esser 2013). Governments have also incorporated new media and ICTs into their strategies and often have far greater resources, the ability to dominate commonly used platforms, and access to internet and telecoms infrastructure.
Think of the short youtube video clip by the political art group Pussy Riot or the brave Mexican artists who have been standing naked in public to protest student killings. What differs artistic activism from regular activism? And how is social media playing a role in the link between artist and activism?
As the name implies, activism is an act of changing and challenging power relations. In basic terms, its target is action to create an effect. On the other hand, art does distinct work in the world.
Mass media might be enormously persuasive, but people’s principal main way to engage with mass media is passive receptive. According to Leah A. Lievrouw (2011), exposure to or reception of a message might or might not provoke a receiver to act.
One recent message that has made a powerful impact is The Handmaid’s Tale, which has inspired protests because it does not merely contribute content to a demonstration, it has become a symbol of resistance. People all over the world are wearing red cloaks and white bonnets to protest various injustices, particularly regarding women’s rights.
World Habitat Day (WHD) is a significant date on the calendar of many activist groups, grassroots communities, and NGOs around the world. It falls each year on the first Monday of October and acts as a focus for protests and advocacy for the right to decent housing.
The UN describes it as a day to “reflect on the state of our towns and cities, and on the basic right of all to adequate shelter”. Unfortunately, the UN’s claim, that WHD “also reminds us we all have the power and the responsibility to shape the future of our cities and towns” does not ring true in many parts of the globe.
One of the most prominent scholars of the Internet, Manuel Castells, explains in a speech on @vilaweb that the Internet is a place where the “fearful” of the world should overcome their fear and bond to fight against the power structures. He continues that this overcoming is possible because people lose a sense of solitude. As a consequence, the aggregative and communicative power of Internet can turn into a transformative power (e.g. #blacklivematters). But how can the civil society become stronger vis-à-vis the state? And what online strategies do political regimes use against dissident social movements?